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During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout(More)
Cognitive control of thoughts, actions and emotions is important for normal behaviour and the development of such control continues throughout childhood and adolescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that response inhibition is primarily mediated by a right-lateralized network involving inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), presupplementary motor cortex(More)
Systemically administered human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) may have the potential to reduce the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of mechanical brain injury. In a series of studies, we address this possibility. We previously found that EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury could substantially improve the posttraumatic(More)
UNLABELLED Stress sensitivity and serotonergic neurotransmission interact, e.g. individuals carrying the low-expressing variants (S and LG) of the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene are at higher risk for developing mood disorders when exposed to severe stress and display higher cortisol responses when exposed to(More)
After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain's fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process,(More)
The limbic system plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as aspects of emotion, and both neuroendocrine disturbance and increased negative emotionality are associated with risk for developing affective disorders. However, the extent to which the architecture of connections between limbic structures may be(More)
It is well-established that prolonged high levels of cortisol have adverse effects on hippocampal neurons and glial cells. Morphometric studies linking hippocampus volume to basal HPA-axis activity, however, have yielded less consistent results. Asymmetry may also be considered, since there is growing evidence for hemispheric lateralization in brain systems(More)
AIM Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids has been associated with adverse cerebral effects, but little is known about their effect on cognitive development and exposure later in childhood. This study examined intellectual abilities, memory and behavioural problems in children previously treated with glucocorticoids. METHODS We evaluated 38 children aged(More)
Serotonergic signaling is considered critical for an appropriate adaptation to stress. We have previously observed that in healthy volunteers, prefrontal serotonin transporter (SERT) binding is positively associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis output in terms of the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Here, we tested (1) if such a(More)
The corticospinal tracts and the basal ganglia continue to develop during childhood and adolescence, and indices of their maturation can be obtained using diffusion-weighted imaging. Here we show that a simple measure of visuomotor function is correlated with diffusion parameters in the corticospinal tracts and neostriatum. In a cohort of 75(More)