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Oral vaccination against bacterial pathogens that infect via the gastrointestinal tract is highly desirable for both economic reasons and the supposed benefits of local mucosal immunity. However, the majority of oral vaccine trials in humans result in failure. Here we try to assimilate our current knowledge to generate a model to improve vaccine development(More)
Our mucosal surfaces are the main sites of non-vector-borne pathogen entry, as well as the main interface with our commensal microbiota. We are still only beginning to understand how mucosal adaptive immunity interacts with commensal and pathogenic microbes to influence factors such as infectivity, phenotypic diversity, and within-host evolution. This is in(More)
Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. A murine Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEΦ, a prophage from STm SL1344, to STm ATCC14028S. Gut inflammation(More)
Vaccine-induced high-avidity IgA can protect against bacterial enteropathogens by directly neutralizing virulence factors or by poorly defined mechanisms that physically impede bacterial interactions with the gut tissues ('immune exclusion'). IgA-mediated cross-linking clumps bacteria in the gut lumen and is critical for protection against infection by(More)
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