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The Trithorax group (TrxG) is composed of diverse, evolutionary conserved proteins that form chromatin-associated complexes accounting for epigenetic transcriptional memory. However, the molecular mechanisms by which particular loci are marked for reactivation after mitosis are only partially understood. Here, based on genetic analyses in zebrafish, we(More)
Excess exogenous retinoic acid (RA) has been well documented to have teratogenic effects in the limb and craniofacial skeleton. Malformations that have been observed in this context include craniosynostosis, a common developmental defect of the skull that occurs in 1 in 2500 individuals and results from premature fusion of the cranial sutures. Despite these(More)
Altered Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling leads to multiple developmental defects, including brachydactyly and deafness. Here we identify chondroitin synthase 1 (CHSY1) as a potential mediator of BMP effects. We show that loss of human CHSY1 function causes autosomal-recessive Temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome (TPBS), mainly characterized by(More)
Skeletal syndromes are among the most common birth defects. Vertebrate skeletogenesis involves two major cell types: cartilage-forming chondrocytes and bone-forming osteoblasts. In vitro, both are under the control of retinoic acid (RA), but its exact in vivo effects remained elusive. Here, based on the positional cloning of the dolphin mutation, we have(More)
Several routes to the enantiomers of fluoronorepinephrines (1) and fluoroepinephrines (2) were explored. A catalytic enantioselective oxazaborolidine reduction and a chiral (salen)Ti(IV) catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of silyl cyanohydrins proved efficacious in the key stereo-defining steps of two respective routes. Binding studies of the catecholamines(More)
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