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Most of the coding capacity of primary plastids is reserved for expressing some central components of the photosynthesis machinery and the translation apparatus. Thus, for the bulk of biochemical and cell biological reactions performed within the primary plastids, many nucleus-encoded components have to be transported posttranslationally into the organelle.(More)
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative rod, designated FNE08-86(T), was isolated from subsurface water of the humic-matter-rich and almost-neutral north-east basin of the experimentally divided bog lake Grosse Fuchskuhle (Brandenburg, Germany). Analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with(More)
A yellow pigmented, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium designated FNE08-7(T) was isolated from subsurface water of the north-east basin of the bog lake Grosse Fuchskuhle (Brandenburg, Germany). A first analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis including environmental 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from freshwater ecosystems showed(More)
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of reactive oxygen species are generally accepted as being fundamental functions of peroxisomes. Additionally, these pathways might have been the driving force favoring the selection of this compartment during eukaryotic evolution. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses of enzymes involved in beta-oxidation(More)
Many important algae groups like diatoms, dinoflagellates and ‘kelp’ but also apicomplexan parasites evolved in secondary endosymbiosis. Here, a eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis created chimeric cells, in which a eukaryotic symbiont was reduced to a complex plastid. Although having lost nearly all of the eukaryotic compartments of the symbiont, a tiny(More)
Peroxisomes are single membrane bound compartments. They are thought to be present in almost all eukaryotic cells, although the bulk of our knowledge about peroxisomes has been generated from only a handful of model organisms. Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized cytosolically and posttranslationally imported into the peroxisomal matrix. The import(More)
Alternative splicing (AS) involving tandem acceptors that are separated by three nucleotides (NAGNAG) is an evolutionarily widespread class of AS, which is well studied in Homo sapiens (human) and Mus musculus (mouse). It has also been shown to be common in the model seed plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). In one of the first studies(More)
Cell polarity is essential for many bacterial activities, but the mechanisms responsible for its establishment are poorly understood. In Myxococcus xanthus, the type IV pili (T4P) motor ATPases PilB and PilT localize to opposite cell poles and switch poles during cellular reversals. We demonstrate that polar localization of PilB and PilT depends on the(More)
At first glance the three eukaryotic protein translocation machineries--the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) transport apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum, the peroxisomal importomer and SELMA, the pre-protein translocator of complex plastids--appear quite different. However, mechanistic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses presented here suggest that(More)
Plastid and mitochondrial genomes have undergone parallel evolution to encode the same functional set of genes. These encode conserved protein components of the electron transport chain in their respective bioenergetic membranes and genes for the ribosomes that express them. This highly convergent aspect of organelle genome evolution is partly explained by(More)