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Progesterone (P4) has been reported to inhibit oxytocin (OT) binding to its receptor in isolated murine endometrial membranes. The purpose of the present research was to 1). examine the in vivo and in vitro effect of P4 on the binding of OT to its receptor in the ovine endometrium and 2). determine whether the endometrial plasma membranes have high-affinity(More)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) account for a substantial portion of the genetic pool of every animal species (e.g. approximately 8% of the human genome). Despite their overwhelming abundance in nature, many questions on the basic biology of ERVs are unanswered. The most important question derives from the observations in many animal species, including(More)
Intrauterine growth restriction is a significant problem worldwide, resulting in increased rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risks for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the role of maternal undernutrition and l-arginine administration on fetal growth and development. Embryo transfer was(More)
The global incidence of human obesity has more than doubled over the past three decades. An ovine model of obesity was developed to determine effects of maternal obesity and arginine supplementation on maternal, placental, and fetal parameters of growth, health, and well being. One-hundred-twenty days prior to embryo transfer, ewes were fed either ad(More)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are fixed and abundant in the genomes of vertebrates. Circumstantial evidence suggests that ERVs play a role in mammalian reproduction, particularly placental morphogenesis, because intact ERV envelope genes were found to be expressed in the syncytiotrophoblasts of human and mouse placenta and to elicit fusion of cells in(More)
In species with noninvasive implantation by conceptus trophectoderm, fetal/maternal communications occur across the endometrial epithelia. The present studies identified changes in junctional complexes in the ovine endometrium that regulate paracellular trafficking of water, ions, and other molecules, and the secretory capacity of the uterine epithelia.(More)
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) is considered the rate-controlling enzyme for the classical de novo biosynthesis of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in mammals. However, metabolism of arginine to agmatine via arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and conversion of agmatine to polyamines via agmatinase (AGMAT) is an alternative pathway long recognized(More)
In pigs, endometrial functions are regulated primarily by progesterone and placental factors including estrogen. Progesterone levels are high throughout pregnancy to stimulate and maintain secretion of histotroph from uterine epithelia necessary for growth, implantation, placentation, and development of the conceptus (embryo and its extra-embryonic(More)
Arginine, the common substrate for production of nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines in mammals, increases in the uterine lumen during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. However, functional roles of arginine within the uterine lumen for conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membranes) development have not been elucidated in vivo. To assess roles of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous molecule that regulates angiogenesis and vasodilation via activation of the cGMP pathway. However, functional roles of NO during embryonic development from spherical blastocysts to elongated filamentous conceptuses (embryo and extraembryonic membrane) during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy have not been elucidated in(More)