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In this paper we investigate how amphetamine affects performance in a PI task by comparing two analyses of responding during peak trials. After training on 24 s fixed interval (FI-24) with 96 s peak trials, rats were given amphetamine for 4 consecutive days at doses of .5 and 1.0 mg/kg. Responses during peak trials were fitted with a Gaussian distribution(More)
A decrease in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum is one of the most common findings in disorders that involve a dysregulation of motivation, including obesity, addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. As disruption of D2R signaling in the ventral striatum--including the nucleus accumbens (NAc)--impairs motivation, we sought to(More)
We previously showed that mice that selectively and reversibly overexpress striatal D2 receptors (D2R-OE) model the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Specifically, D2R-OE mice display a deficit in incentive motivation. The present studies investigated the basis for this deficit. First, we assessed whether hedonic reaction to reward is intact in D2R-OE(More)
In rats with microdialysis probes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) or prefrontal cortex (PFC), intraperitoneally (IP) delivered morphine on the 8th day of escalating doses decreased extracellular ACh in the NAc. On day 9, naloxone (5 mg/kg) precipitated withdrawal and increased the release of ACh. When morphine and methylnaloxonium were given locally into the(More)
An opioid antagonist injected in the nucleus accumbens of a morphine-dependent rat will lower extracellular dopamine and release acetylcholine (ACh), as also seen in opiate withdrawal. It was hypothesized that raising extracellular ACh experimentally would be aversive as reflected by the induction of a conditioned taste aversion. Rats were implanted with(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive inflexibility is a core symptom of several mental disorders including schizophrenia. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients performing cognitive tasks have reported decreased activation of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Using a pharmacogenetic approach to model MD hypofunction, we recently showed that decreasing MD activity(More)
Motivation serves 2 important functions: It guides actions to be goal-directed, and it provides the energy and vigor required to perform the work necessary to meet those goals. Dissociating these 2 processes with existing behavioral assays has been a challenge. In this article, we report a novel experimental strategy to distinguish the 2 processes in mice.(More)
Anticipation occurs on timescales ranging from milliseconds to hours to days. This paper relates the theoretical and methodological developments in the study of interval timing in the seconds, minutes and hours range to research on the anticipatory activity induced by regularly timed daily meals. Daily food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is entrained by(More)
The transfer of relative temporal representations was assessed in a series of three experiments. In each experiment, rats (Rattus norvegicus) received one set of conditioned stimulus (CS) and intertrial interval (ITI) durations in Phase 1 and another set in Phase 2. The ratio between the CS and ITI intervals was either changed or maintained across phases.(More)
Selecting visual targets for saccadic eye movements is a vital step in sensorimotor processing. This selection is made on the basis of target salience: a saccade tends to be made to the most interesting part of the visual "eld. Both bottom-up and top-down processes have been postulated to contribute to salience, but the exact mechanisms by which some areas(More)