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The purpose of this review is to analyze the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of viral infections, an area of research that has recently gained momentum given the accumulation of evidence regarding the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Attention will be focussed on three(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine short-term outcome for children with acute liver failure (ALF) as it relates to cause, clinical status, and patient demographics and to determine prognostic factors. STUDY DESIGN A prospective, multicenter case study collecting demographic, clinical, laboratory, and short-term outcome data on children from birth to 18 years with(More)
The epidemiology of primary hepatic malignancies in U.S. children is poorly characterized. We analyzed the incidence, mortality, and characteristics of primary hepatic malignancies in U.S. residents less than 20 years of age. Fatal primary hepatic malignancies in persons less than 20 years of age, between 1979 and 1996, were identified using the(More)
One year of lamivudine treatment results in increased hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA negativity in children with chronic hepatitis B and high serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Two hundred seventy-six children who participated in a 1-year randomized, placebo-controlled study of lamivudine were(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in children is difficult to evaluate because of lack of standardized neuropsychological tests for all age ranges. The purpose of this retrospective study of children with clinically suspected MHE was to investigate relationships between brain MR spectroscopy metabolites and biochemical markers of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Although randomized trials of adults infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have shown that ribavirin increases the efficacy of pegylated interferon (PEG), such trials have not been performed in children. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of PEG and ribavirin, compared with PEG and placebo, in children 5 to 17 years old with(More)
There is relatively little information in the literature on the histopathology of chronic hepatitis C in children. The Peds-C Trial, designed to test the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in children, provided an opportunity to examine liver biopsies from 121 treatment-naïve children, ages 2 to 16 (mean, 9.8 years) infected with the(More)
UNLABELLED Biliary atresia (BA) is notable for marked ductular reaction and rapid development of fibrosis. Activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway promotes the expansion of populations of immature epithelial cells that coexpress mesenchymal markers and may be profibrogenic. We examined the hypothesis that in BA excessive Hh activation impedes ductular(More)
No all-oral, direct-acting antiviral regimens have been approved for children with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in adolescents with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. One hundred patients aged 12-17 years received a combination(More)
UNLABELLED Weight loss and changes in growth are noted in children treated with interferon alpha (IFN-α). The aim of this study was to prospectively determine changes in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and body composition during and after treatment of children with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Children treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a(More)