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, the resting Fe(II) state is mainly 6-coordinate and low-spin, and the CO adduct has vibrational frequencies characteristic of a histidine-heme-CO complex in a hydrophobic environment. In contrast, the protein sGC2 is 5-coordinate, high-spin in the resting state, and the CO adduct has perturbed vibrational frequencies indicative of a negatively polarizing(More)
We previously reported the design of a library of de novo amino acid sequences targeted to fold into four-helix bundles. The design of these sequences was based on a "binary code" strategy, in which the patterning of polar and nonpolar amino acids is specified explicitly, but the exact identities of the side chains is varied extensively (Kamtekar S,(More)
Carbon monoxide binding was studied in a collection of de novo heme proteins derived from combinatorial libraries of sequences designed to fold into 4-helix bundles. The design of the de novo sequences was based on the previously reported "binary code" strategy, in which the patterning of polar and nonpolar amino acids is specified explicitly, but the exact(More)
Resonance Raman spectra of the CO-responsive transcription factor CooA from Rhodospirillum rubrum provides evidence on the nature of heme ligation and its CO activation mechanism. The Fe(III) form gives standard low-spin heme spectrum, while the Fe(II) form is low spin for wild-type (WT) CooA and mixed spin for a CooA variant, H77Y, with an His77Tyr(More)
Electronic absorption, EPR, and resonance Raman spectroscopies revealed that CooA, the CO-sensing transcriptional regulator from Rhodospirillum rubrum, reacts with NO to form a five-coordinate NO-heme. NO must therefore displace both of the heme ligands from six-coordinate, low-spin Fe(II)CooA in forming five-coordinate Fe(II)CooA(NO). CO, in contrast,(More)
FeNO vibrational frequencies were investigated for a series of myoglobin mutants using isotope-edited resonance Raman spectra of (15/14)NO adducts, which reveal the FeNO and NO stretching modes. The latter give rise to doublet bands, as a result of Fermi resonances with coincident porphyrin vibrations; these doublets were analyzed by curve-fitting to obtain(More)
This article explores the practices behind the creation and transfer of knowledge related to biological weapons (BW) in the former Soviet BW program and their implications for understanding bioweapons proliferation. Using in-depth interviews collected for an ongoing oral history project of the Soviet and U.S. bioweapons programs, this article shows that BW(More)
In September 2011, scientists announced new experimental findings that would not only threaten the conduct and publication of influenza research, but would have significant policy and intelligence implications. The findings presented a modified variant of the H5N1 avian influenza virus (hereafter referred to as the H5N1 virus) that was transmissible via(More)
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