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RATIONALE Considerable confusion exists regarding nomenclature, classification, and management of pediatric diffuse lung diseases due to the relative rarity and differences in the spectrum of disease between adults and young children. OBJECTIVES A multidisciplinary working group was formed to: (1) apply consensus terminology and diagnostic criteria for(More)
BACKGROUND The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by seizures, mental retardation, and benign tumors of the brain, heart, skin, and kidney. Malignant tumors also can occur in patients with tuberous sclerosis, particularly in the kidney, although they occur less frequently than benign tumors. The types of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if ketamine attenuates postoperative delirium concomitant with an anti-inflammatory effect in patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN A prospective randomized study. SETTING A Veterans Affairs medical center. PARTICIPANTS Cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTIONS Patients at least 55 years of(More)
Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy (HC), a rare arrhythmogenic disorder, presents as difficult-to-control arrhythmias or sudden death in infants and children, particularly girls. Three cases are described with autopsy findings. In two cases, yellow-tan nodules were grossly visible in the myocardium; in the third case, no gross lesions were identified. Microscopic(More)
Vascular risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, are known to contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that patients with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop cognitive dysfunction after noncardiac surgery. Age- and education-balanced patients (n = 60) undergoing elective noncardiac surgery with and(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) affects a significant number of patients and may have serious consequences for quality of life. Although POCD is most frequent after cardiac surgery, the prevalence of POCD after noncardiac surgery in older patients is also significant. The risk factors for POCD after noncardiac surgery include advanced(More)
Diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) relies on histologic and/or histochemical staining of sections from suction rectal biopsies. Acetylcholinesterase histochemistry (AChE) facilitates diagnosis but is not universally employed, in part because it requires special tissue handling. Calretinin immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be a useful alternative, because(More)
Shiga toxin 1 and 2 production is a cardinal virulence trait of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection that causes a spectrum of intestinal and systemic pathology. However, intestinal sites of enterohemorrhagic E. coli colonization during the human infection and how the Shiga toxins are taken up and cross the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3)(More)
This is the first of a series on pediatric pulmonary disease that will appear as Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology over the coming months. The series will include practical issues, such as this protocol for handling lung biopsies and another on bronchoalveolar lavage in childhood, as well as reviews of advances in various areas in pediatric pulmonary(More)