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PURPOSE Vascular risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, are known to contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that patients with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop cognitive dysfunction after noncardiac surgery. METHODS Age- and education-balanced patients (n = 60) undergoing elective noncardiac(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) affects a significant number of patients and may have serious consequences for quality of life. Although POCD is most frequent after cardiac surgery, the prevalence of POCD after noncardiac surgery in older patients is also significant. The risk factors for POCD after noncardiac surgery include advanced(More)
BACKGROUND The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by seizures, mental retardation, and benign tumors of the brain, heart, skin, and kidney. Malignant tumors also can occur in patients with tuberous sclerosis, particularly in the kidney, although they occur less frequently than benign tumors. The types of(More)
Postoperative delirium with cognitive impairment frequently occurs after cardiac surgery. It was hypothesized that delirium is associated with residual postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients after surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Male cardiac surgical patients (M age = 66 yr., SD = 8; M education = 13 yr., SD = 2) and nonsurgical controls (M(More)
RATIONALE Considerable confusion exists regarding nomenclature, classification, and management of pediatric diffuse lung diseases due to the relative rarity and differences in the spectrum of disease between adults and young children. OBJECTIVES A multidisciplinary working group was formed to: (1) apply consensus terminology and diagnostic criteria for(More)
Diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) relies on histologic and/or histochemical staining of sections from suction rectal biopsies. Acetylcholinesterase histochemistry (AChE) facilitates diagnosis but is not universally employed, in part because it requires special tissue handling. Calretinin immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be a useful alternative, because(More)
PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that elevated postoperative interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are associated with short- and medium-term impairment of cognitive functions in patients after coronary artery surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS Eighty-six age- and education-balanced patients ≥55 years of age(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if ketamine attenuates postoperative delirium concomitant with an anti-inflammatory effect in patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN A prospective randomized study. SETTING A Veterans Affairs medical center. PARTICIPANTS Cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTIONS Patients at least 55 years of(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop short-term cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN A prospective study. SETTING Veterans Affairs medical center. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-six age- and education-balanced patients undergoing elective cardiac(More)