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This article examines transformational leadership and servant leadership to determine what similarities and differences exist between the two leadership concepts. The authors posit that the primary difference between transformational leadership and servant leadership is the focus of the leader. The transformational leader's focus is directed toward the(More)
Postoperative delirium with cognitive impairment frequently occurs after cardiac surgery. It was hypothesized that delirium is associated with residual postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients after surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Male cardiac surgical patients (M age = 66 yr., SD = 8; M education = 13 yr., SD = 2) and nonsurgical controls (M(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop short-term cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN A prospective study. SETTING Veterans Affairs medical center. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-six age- and education-balanced patients undergoing elective cardiac(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) affects a significant number of patients and may have serious consequences for quality of life. Although POCD is most frequent after cardiac surgery, the prevalence of POCD after noncardiac surgery in older patients is also significant. The risk factors for POCD after noncardiac surgery include advanced(More)
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. We tested the hypothesis that a history of alcohol dependence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of POCD in male patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed(More)
BACKGROUND While vascular and immune abnormalities are common in juvenile and adult dermatomyositis (DM), the molecular changes that contribute to these abnormalities are not clear. Therefore, we investigated pathways that facilitate new blood vessel formation and dendritic cell migration in dermatomyositis. METHODS Muscle biopsies from subjects with DM(More)
This study addresses the problem of varied definitions of leadership and focuses on the possibility that as part of the social science tradition, the results of other leadership definitions focused only on isolated variables. A review of the leadership literature showed that parsimony may be a problem in understanding leadership. In contrast to parsimony,(More)
Leadership, and the study of this phenomenon, has roots in the beginning of civilization. Our work, work environment, worker motivations, leaders, managers, leadership style, and a myriad of other work-related variables have been studied for almost two centuries. Over time, organizations have evolved from those with an authoritarian style to ones with a(More)
Research evidence identifies trait optimism as the strongest individual predictor of adolescent resilience when framed within Lazarus's theory of stress and coping. As a precursor to the development of an intervention to maximize resilience, this study clarifies the concept of optimism. Relationships among trait, situational, and comparative optimism were(More)
Mutations in POMT1 lead to a group of neuromuscular conditions ranging in severity from Walker-Warburg syndrome to limb girdle muscular dystrophy. We report two male siblings, ages 19 and 14, and an unrelated 6-year old female with early onset muscular dystrophy and intellectual disability with minimal structural brain anomalies and no ocular abnormalities.(More)
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