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BACKGROUND Observational studies associate higher intakes of n-3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) during pregnancy with higher gestation duration and birth size. The results of randomized supplementation trials using various n-3 LCPUFA sources and amounts are mixed. OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that 600 mg/d of the n-3(More)
DHA (22:6n-3) supplementation during infancy has been associated with lower heart rate (HR) and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. We hypothesized that maternal DHA supplementation would improve fetal cardiac autonomic control and newborn neurobehavior. Pregnant women were randomized to 600 mg/day of DHA or placebo oil capsules at 14.4 (+/-4) weeks(More)
Several studies in term and pre-term infants have investigated the rhythmic pattern of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) indicating correlations between the quantitative measures derived from sucking pressure variation and/or electromyographic (EMG) recordings and a range of factors that include age, perinatal stress and sequelae. In the human fetus, NNS has been(More)
We explored whether maternal exercise during pregnancy moderates the effect of fetal breathing movements on fetal cardiac autonomic control assessed by metrics of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Thirty women were assigned to Exercise or Control group (n=15/group) based on the modifiable physical activity questionnaire (MPAQ).(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake on cognitive development is controversial. Most randomized trials have assessed cognition at 18 mo, although significant development of cognitive abilities (early executive function) emerge later. OBJECTIVE The objective was to evaluate cognition beyond 18 mo and longitudinal(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies using ultrasound technology showed that fetal heart rate (HR) may be responsive to maternal aerobic exercise. Although it is recognized that cardiac autonomic control may be influenced by the intrauterine environment, little is known about how maternal exercise affects fetal heart development. AIMS This study tested the(More)
Breathing movements are one of the earliest fetal motor behaviors to emerge and are a hallmark of fetal well-being. Fetal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been documented but efforts to quantify the influence of breathing on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) are difficult due to the episodic nature of fetal breathing activity. We used a(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) improves cardiac autonomic function in the fetus. The specific physical activity attributes (e.g., mode) that produce this benefit are not well understood. AIM To determine if more time spent performing non-continuous LTPA during pregnancy is significantly associated with lower fetal heart rate(More)
Docosahexaenoic acid is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in large quantity in the brain and which has repeatedly been observed to be related in positive ways to both cognitive function and cardiovascular health. The mechanisms through which docosahexaenoic acid affects cognition are not well understood, but in this article, we propose a(More)
PURPOSE Our previous research found lower fetal HR and increased HR variability (HRV) in women who exercised during pregnancy. This finding is similar to the adult heart training response at rest due to aerobic exercise. Dose-response associations have been found between physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. Therefore, our objective was(More)