Kathleen L. Tober

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The American Cancer Society reports the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in males to be thrice the incidence in females. This increased squamous cell carcinoma incidence has been attributed to men accumulating more sun exposure and using less sun protection than women. To date, there have been no controlled studies examining the effect of gender on skin(More)
Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is the major environmental carcinogen contributing to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development. There are over 3.5 million NMSC diagnoses in two million patients annually, with men having a 3-fold greater incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with women. Chronic inflammation has been linked to tumorigenesis, with a(More)
Skin cancer incidence and mortality are higher in men compared to women, but the causes of this sex discrepancy remain largely unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure induces cutaneous inflammation and neutralizes cutaneous antioxidants. Gr-1 + CD11b + myeloid cells are heterogeneous bone marrow-derived cells that promote inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.(More)
The present studies examined the temporal sequence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression and the cellular sources of iNOS protein and of 3-nitrotyrosine, as a marker of production of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates during murine multi-stage carcinogenesis. Levels of iNOS mRNA in dorsal skin isolated from(More)
ΔNp63α, a proto-oncogene, is up-regulated in non-melanoma skin cancers and directly regulates the expression of both Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN). Since ΔNp63α has been shown to inhibit cell invasion via regulation of VDR, we wanted to determine whether dietary Vitamin D3 protected against(More)
Epidemiological studies support a link between cumulative sun exposure and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. However, the presumed effects of extended ultraviolet light B (UVB) exposure on tumorigenesis in the sexes have not been formally investigated. We examined differences in ultimate tumorigenesis at 25 weeks in mice exposed to UVB(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a homotrimeric proinflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases and malignancies, including cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). To determine whether MIF inhibition could reduce UVB light–induced inflammation and squamous carcinogenesis, a small-molecule MIF inhibitor (CPSI-1306) was(More)
Because of the ever-increasing incidence of ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced skin cancer, considerable attention is being paid to prevention through the use of both sunscreens and after sun treatments, many of which contain antioxidants. Vitamin E is included as an antioxidant in many sunscreens and lotions currently on the market. Studies examining the(More)
Slug (Snai2), a highly conserved transcriptional repressor important in epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in development, has also been implicated in EMT-like processes during tumor progression (Hemavathy et al., 2000). Slug null mice chronically exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) develop a lower skin tumor burden than wild type mice, with(More)
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