Kathleen L Irwin

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BACKGROUND AND METHODS The smoking of "crack" cocaine is thought to be associated with high-risk sexual practices that accelerate the spread of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied 2323 young adults, 18 to 29 years of age, who smoked crack regularly or who had never smoked crack. The study participants, recruited from the(More)
CONTEXT Each year, millions of U.S. youth acquire sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Estimates of the economic burden of STDs can help to quantify the impact of STDs on the nation's youth and on the payers of the cost of their medical care. METHODS We synthesized the existing literature on STD costs to estimate the lifetime medical cost per case of(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate direct medical costs and average lifetime cost per case of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). METHODS We estimated the direct medical expenditures for PID and its three major sequelae (chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility) and determined the average lifetime cost of a case of PID and its sequelae. We analyzed 3(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examines the relationship between sex trading and psychological distress and the implications of that relationship for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus among a sample of young women recruited from the streets of Harlem. METHODS Interviews were conducted with 346 predominantly drug-using women, aged 18 to 29 years, of whom(More)
OBJECTIVE As the benefits of early diagnosis of HIV increase, US adults are more likely to be offered HIV counseling and testing in settings where they may not seek testing. Rates and determinants of counseling and testing acceptance in these settings are poorly understood. DESIGN We reviewed articles and abstracts published from 1985 to 1995 which(More)
Since publication of CDC's 1993 guidelines (CDC, Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-12]:1-39), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been introduced as critical new tools to diagnose and treat C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. NAATs for C. trachomatis(More)
BACKGROUND Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic(More)
In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, group M, subtype B is the predominant subtype. A cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients at the Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, NY, between September 1997 and February 1998 identified 3 (1. 2%) of 252 persons infected with non-B subtypes: subtypes A and F, 1 each, and 1 potential(More)
OBJECTIVES Although sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) cause tremendous health and economic burdens in our society, awareness and knowledge regarding STDs remain poor among health care providers. To examine missed opportunities for STD-related counseling, diagnosis and treatment, we investigated how frequently U.S. adults reported being asked about STDs(More)
Since crack cocaine appeared in urban areas in the United States in the mid-1980s, reports have suggested that crack smokers may be at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including infection with HIV, because they have multiple sex partners, trade sex for money or drugs, and rarely use condoms. A cross-sectional survey is being conducted(More)