Kathleen L. Caldwell

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BACKGROUND Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid function is an area of ongoing research. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the potential relationship between urinary levels of perchlorate and serum levels of thyroid(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was designed to determine whether prenatal mercury exposure, including potential releases from the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, adversely affects fetal growth and child development. METHODS We determined maternal and umbilical cord blood total mercury of nonsmoking women who delivered at term in lower Manhattan after 11(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate trends in children's blood lead levels and the extent of blood lead testing of children at risk for lead poisoning from national surveys conducted during a 16-year period in the United States. METHODS Data for children aged 1 to 5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Phase I, 1988-1991, and Phase II,(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide levels of total and speciated urinary arsenic in a representative sample of the US population. METHODS For the first time, total arsenic and seven inorganic and organic arsenic species were measured in the urine of participants (n=2557) for the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were compiled as(More)
We measured 13 metals in the urine of 496 United States residents to establish reference range concentrations using inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry and Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. We frequently found 8 of these analytes at detectable concentrations in urine specimens: molybdenum (in 99.8%); lead (98.8%); tin(More)
BACKGROUND Although the maternal fish consumption is supposed to have beneficial effects on development of infants, it may be harmful for child cognitive development since fish is a common source of methylmercury. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Purpose of the study was to describe the usual pattern of fish consumption during pregnancy in Poland and explain the(More)
BACKGROUND Adverse health effects of cadmium in adults are well documented, but little is known about the neuropsychological effects of cadmium in children, and no studies of cadmium and blood pressure in children have been conducted. OBJECTIVE We examined the potential effects of low-level cadmium exposure on intelligence quotient, neuropsychological(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the public health and toxicologic interest in methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl mercury (EHg), these mercury species have been technically difficult to measure in large population studies. METHODS Using NHANES 2011-2012 data, we calculated reference ranges and examined demographic factors associated with specific mercury species(More)
Because the toxicological effects of mercury (Hg) are more serious in the developing central nervous system of children than adults, there are growing concerns about prenatal and early childhood Hg exposure. This study examined postnatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and cognition and behavior in 780 children enrolled in the Treatment of Lead (Pb)-exposed(More)
The purpose of the study was to assess the neurocognitive status of 6-month-old infants whose mothers were exposed to low but varying amounts of lead during pregnancy. Lead levels in the cord blood were used to assess environmental exposure and the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) assessed visual recognition memory (VRM). The cohort consisted of 452(More)