Kathleen J. Newton

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The NB mitochondrial genome found in most fertile varieties of commercial maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) was sequenced. The 569,630-bp genome maps as a circle containing 58 identified genes encoding 33 known proteins, 3 ribosomal RNAs, and 21 tRNAs that recognize 14 amino acids. Among the 22 group II introns identified, 7 are trans-spliced. There are 121 open(More)
We have sequenced five distinct mitochondrial genomes in maize: two fertile cytotypes (NA and the previously reported NB) and three cytoplasmic-male-sterile cytotypes (CMS-C, CMS-S, and CMS-T). Their genome sizes range from 535,825 bp in CMS-T to 739,719 bp in CMS-C. Large duplications (0.5-120 kb) account for most of the size increases. Plastid DNA(More)
The consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction are not limited to the development of oxidative stress or initiation of apoptosis but can result in the establishment of stress tolerance. Using maize mitochondrial mutants, we show that permanent mitochondrial deficiencies trigger novel Ca(2+)-independent signaling pathways, leading to constitutive expression(More)
We have examined the expression of three alternative oxidase (aox) genes in two types of maize mitochondrial mutants. Nonchromosomal stripe (NCS) mutants carry mitochondrial DNA deletions that affect subunits of respiratory complexes and show constitutively defective growth. Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) mutants have mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, but(More)
A deletion eliminating part of a transcribed region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been found in the maize nonchromosomal stripe 3 (NCS3) mutant. This results in the specific loss of a set of three mitochondrial RNAs consisting, in normal plants, of a 4.9 kb transcript, its 1.8 kb intron and the resulting processed mRNA of approximately 2.9 kb. In the(More)
We have characterized two promoters of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) gene in Zea perennis mitochondria present in maize lines. Initiation at a site 907 bases upstream of the start codon results in the major approximately 1900 nt cox2 transcript. A sequence just upstream of this site conforms to the consensus described for maize mitochondrial(More)
The nonchromosomal stripe (NCS) mutations of maize are a set of maternally inherited mutations that result in reduced plant growth and lowered reproductive capacity. NCS6 mutants are characterized by stunted growth, yellow stripes on leaves, and sectors of aborted kernels on ears. The heteroplasmic NCS6 striped plants carry both partially deleted and normal(More)
The nonchromosomal stripe 2 (NCS2) mutant of maize (Zea mays L.) has a DNA rearrangement in the mitochondrial genome that segregates with the abnormal growth phenotype. Yet, the NCS2 characteristic phenotype includes striped sectors of pale-green tissue on the leaves. This suggests a chloroplast abnormality. To characterize the chloroplasts present in the(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) insertions into nuclear chromosomes have been documented in a number of eukaryotes. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to examine the variation of mtDNA insertions in maize. Twenty overlapping cosmids, representing the 570-kb maize mitochondrial genome, were individually labeled and hybridized to root tip metaphase(More)