Kathleen J. Ballard

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OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of lessons in the Alexander technique, massage therapy, and advice from a doctor to take exercise (exercise prescription) along with nurse delivered behavioural counselling for patients with chronic or recurrent back pain. DESIGN Factorial randomised trial. Setting 64 general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS(More)
OBJECTIVE An economic evaluation of therapeutic massage, exercise, and lessons in the Alexander technique for treating persistent back pain. DESIGN Cost consequences study and cost effectiveness analysis at 12 month follow-up of a factorial randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain recruited from(More)
1. One hind limb of each of four cats was either chronically de-efferentated, or chronically de-afferentated, and perfused with buffered glutaraldehyde fixative. Up to three different muscle nerves were dissected from each limb, post-fixed in osmium tetroxide and embedded in Epon. Ultrathin transverse sections were mounted on Formvar-coated single-hole(More)
OBJECTIVE Evaluation of long-term outcomes following laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH). DESIGN Retrospective postal questionnaire. SETTING Norwegian university teaching hospital. POPULATION A total of 315 consecutive patients. METHODS A questionnaire sent to all patients who underwent a LSH during 2004 and 2005. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES(More)
BACKGROUND Although the potential benefits of stereoscopic laparoscopy have been recognized for years, the technology has not been adopted because of poor operator tolerance. Passive polarizing projection systems, which have revolutionized three-dimensional (3D) cinema, are now being trialled in surgery. This study was designed to see whether this(More)
1. Six muscle spindle poles, five from experiments in which foci of sarcomere convergence had been observed during stimulation of fusimotor axons, were serially sectioned for light and electron microscopy. Every somatic motor terminal was studied in ultrathin sections at several levels.2. In all six poles static gamma axons, or presumed static gamma axons,(More)
The distribution of cholinesterase in the rabbit distal colon has been studied using histochemical methods. Non-specific cholinesterase predominates in muscle tissue, the longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa staining slightly more strongly than the circular layer. The muscularis mucosae stains the most intensely but its non-specific cholinesterase(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients following laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery. METHODS A systematic review was performed according to Quorum guidelines. Prospective studies comparing the HRQoL of patients after laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery were identified. The primary outcome measure was(More)