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BACKGROUND In the United States, black and Hispanic white women with breast cancer present with more advanced stages and have poorer survival rates than non-Hispanic whites, whereas Asians and Pacific Islanders do not. However, Asians and Pacific Islanders and Hispanic whites are heterogeneous populations, and few studies have evaluated breast cancer stage,(More)
CONTEXT Women using combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy (CHRT) have an increased risk of breast cancer; however, data on use for long durations and on risk associated with patterns of use are lacking. OBJECTIVE To evaluate relationships between durations and patterns of CHRT use and risk of breast cancer by histological type and(More)
Mutations in certain genes that regulate the cell cycle, such as p16 and p53, are frequently found in human cancers. However, tumor-specific mutations are uncommon in genes encoding cyclin E and the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1, two cell-cycle regulators that are also thought to contribute to tumor progression. It is now known that levels of both cyclin E and p27(More)
Although well studied in families at high-risk, the roles of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are poorly understood in breast cancers in the general population, particularly in Black women and in age groups outside of the very young. We examined the prevalence and predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in 1,628 women with breast cancer and 674 women(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular profiling studies have identified subtypes of breast cancer that can be approximately classified by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER-2/neu (HER-2) expression. These molecular subtypes are prognostically significant, but to the authors' knowledge, differences in their etiologic profiles have not been(More)
Little is known about the etiologic profile of triple-negative breast cancer (negative for estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor), a breast cancer subtype associated with high mortality and inadequate therapeutic options. We undertook this study to assess the risk for triple-negative breast cancer among women 45 years of age(More)
Epidemiologic studies suggest that some hormone-related risk factors in breast cancer differentially influence risk for disease subtypes classified by the status of the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR). However, it remains unclear whether human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or p53 expression status further differentiates these(More)
CONTEXT Studies of high-risk families with multiple early-onset cases of breast cancer have been useful for assessing the type and spectrum of germline mutations on the BRCA1 gene, but do not provide guidance to women with modest family history profiles. Thus, studies of women from the general population are needed to determine the BRCA1 mutation frequency(More)
BACKGROUND The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is widely used for counseling and determining eligibility for breast cancer prevention trials, although its validity for projecting risk in African American women is uncertain. We developed a model for projecting absolute risk of invasive breast cancer in African(More)
A matched case-control study of prenatal risk factors for neuroblastoma was conducted, including 104 cases diagnosed over the period 1970-79 in the Greater Delaware Valley. Significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) were associated with maternal use of a neurally active drug during pregnancy (OR = 2.83), sex hormone exposure 3 months prior to or during(More)