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We investigated the conditions under which plastic responses to density are adaptive in natural populations of Impatiens capensis and determined whether plasticity has evolved differently in different selective environments. Previous studies showed that a population that evolved in a sunny site exhibited greater plasticity in response to density than did a(More)
We identified environment-dependent constraints on the evolution of plasticity to density under natural conditions in two natural populations of Impatiens capensis. We also examined the expression of population divergence in genetic variance-covariance matrices in these natural environments. Inbred lines, originally collected from a sunny site with high(More)
Maternal effects on seed traits such as germination are important components of the life histories of plants because they represent the pathway from adult to offspring: the pathway that completes the life cycle. Maternal environmental effects on germination influence basic life-history expression, natural selection on germination, the expression of genetic(More)
Natural populations often experience the weakening or removal of a source of selection that had been important in the maintenance of one or more traits. Here we refer to these situations as 'relaxed selection,' and review recent studies that explore the effects of such changes on traits in their ecological contexts. In a few systems, such as the loss of(More)
We tested for adaptive differentiation between two natural populations of Impatiens capensis from sites known to differ in selection on plasticity to density. We also determined the degree to which plasticity to density within a site was correlated with plastic responses of experimental immigrants to foreign sites. Inbred lines, derived from natural(More)
Introduced species frequently show geographic differentiation, and when differentiation mirrors the ancestral range, it is often taken as evidence of adaptive evolution. The mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was introduced to North America from Eurasia 150-200 years ago, providing an opportunity to study parallel adaptation in a genetic model organism.(More)
Inbreeding depression is a major evolutionary and ecological force that influences population dynamics and the evolution of inbreeding-avoidance traits such as mating systems and dispersal. There is now compelling evidence that inbreeding depression is environment-dependent. Here, we discuss ecological and evolutionary consequences of environment-dependent(More)
Can animal mating systems result in the choice of mates carrying genotypes that are otherwise favored by natural selection? This question is addressed by studying, in natural populations of Colias butterflies, how the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) enzyme genotype of males mating Colias females varies with degree of female mate discrimination. Certain PGI(More)
Seed dormancy, by controlling the timing of germination, can strongly affect plant survival. The kind of seed dormancy, therefore, can influence both population and species-level processes such as colonization, adaptation, speciation, and extinction. We used a dataset comprising over 14,000 taxa in 318 families across the seed plants to test hypotheses on(More)
Although there is keen interest in the potential adaptive value of epigenetic variation, it is unclear what conditions favor the stability of these variants either within or across generations. Because epigenetic modifications can be environmentally sensitive, existing theory on adaptive phenotypic plasticity provides relevant insights. Our consideration of(More)