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We investigated the conditions under which plastic responses to density are adaptive in natural populations of Impatiens capensis and determined whether plasticity has evolved differently in different selective environments. Previous studies showed that a population that evolved in a sunny site exhibited greater plasticity in response to density than did a(More)
The population structure of an organism reflects its evolutionary history and influences its evolutionary trajectory. It constrains the combination of genetic diversity and reveals patterns of past gene flow. Understanding it is a prerequisite for detecting genomic regions under selection, predicting the effect of population disturbances, or modeling gene(More)
Maternal effects on seed traits such as germination are important components of the life histories of plants because they represent the pathway from adult to offspring: the pathway that completes the life cycle. Maternal environmental effects on germination influence basic life-history expression, natural selection on germination, the expression of genetic(More)
1 Past land use can have long-term e€ects on plant species' distributional patterns if alterations in resources and environmental conditions have persistent e€ects on population demography (environmental change) and/or if plants are intrinsically limited in their colonization ability (historical factors). 2 We evaluated the role of environmental alteration(More)
We used field-collected seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to simulate a colonization event of plants from diverse locations into a common environment to compare regionally "local" and "foreign" populations of this historically mobile species. Life history varied among regional groups, but most variation was found among populations within regions.(More)
We identified environment-dependent constraints on the evolution of plasticity to density under natural conditions in two natural populations of Impatiens capensis. We also examined the expression of population divergence in genetic variance-covariance matrices in these natural environments. Inbred lines, originally collected from a sunny site with high(More)
Germination timing of Arabidopsis thaliana displays strong plasticity to geographic location and seasonal conditions experienced by seeds. We identified which plastic responses were adaptive using recombinant inbred lines in a field manipulation of geographic location (Kentucky, KY; Rhode Island, RI), maternal photoperiod (14-h and 10-h days), and season of(More)
Flowering locus C (FLC) is a major regulator of flowering responses to seasonal environmental factors. Here, we document that FLC also regulates another major life-history transition-seed germination, and that natural variation at the FLC locus and in FLC expression is associated with natural variation in temperature-dependent germination. FLC-mediated(More)
Natural populations often experience the weakening or removal of a source of selection that had been important in the maintenance of one or more traits. Here we refer to these situations as 'relaxed selection,' and review recent studies that explore the effects of such changes on traits in their ecological contexts. In a few systems, such as the loss of(More)
Colonizing species may often encounter strong selection during the initial stages of adaptation to novel environments. Such selection is particularly likely to act on traits expressed early in development since early survival is necessary for the expression of adaptive phenotypes later in life. Genetic studies of fitness under field conditions, however,(More)