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The pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 associated dementia, is exacerbated by an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In the context of disease, TIMP-1 has emerged as an important multifunctional protein capable(More)
Astrocyte production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 is important in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and inflammatory diseases such as HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). TIMPs and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. An imbalance between TIMPs and MMPs is associated with many(More)
HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) is an important complication of HIV-1 infection. Reactive astrogliosis is a key pathological feature in HAD brains and in other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Activated astroglia may play a critical role in CNS inflammatory diseases such as HAD. In order to test the hypothesis that activated astrocytes cause neuronal(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) associated with infection and activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) in the brain, occur late in disease. Infected/activated MP initiate neuroinflammation activating glial cells and ultimately disrupting neuronal function. Astrocytes secrete tissue inhibitor of(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV)-1 leads to some form of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in approximately half of the cases. The mechanisms by which astrocytes contribute to HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD), the most severe form of HAND, still remain unresolved. HIV-1-encephalitis (HIVE), a pathological(More)
Reactive astrogliosis is a key pathological aspect of neuroinflammatory disorders including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurological disease. On the basis of previous data that showedastrocytes activated with interleukin (IL)-1beta induce neuronal injury, we analyzed global gene changes in IL-1beta-activated human astrocytes by(More)
HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)-relevant proinflammatory cytokines robustly induce astrocyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). As TIMP-1 displays pleotropic functions, we hypothesized that TIMP-1 expression may serve as a neuroprotective response of astrocytes. Previously, we reported that chronically activated astrocytes fail to maintain(More)
Astrocytes play an important role in astrocyte-neuron homeostasis. In HIV-1-infected brain, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) activation of astrocytes contributes to neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-1β-activated-astrocytes-induced neurodegeneration in HIV-1-infected brain are largely unknown. We hypothesize that secretory factors(More)
Reactive astrogliosis is a prominent pathological feature of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We hypothesized that in HAD, astrocytes activated with proinflammatory stimuli such as IL-1beta express Fas ligand (FasL), a death protein. IL-1beta and HIV-1-activated astrocytes expressed FasL mRNA and protein. Luciferase reporter constructs showed that IL-1beta(More)
CD38 is a 45-kD ectoenzyme involved in the synthesis of potent calcium (Ca(2+))-mobilizing agents, cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (cADPR), and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP+). In HIV-1-infected patients, increased CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells is linked to immune system activation and progression of HIV-1 infection. However,(More)