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The pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 associated dementia, is exacerbated by an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In the context of disease, TIMP-1 has emerged as an important multifunctional protein capable(More)
Astrocyte production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 is important in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and inflammatory diseases such as HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). TIMPs and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. An imbalance between TIMPs and MMPs is associated with many(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) associated with infection and activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) in the brain, occur late in disease. Infected/activated MP initiate neuroinflammation activating glial cells and ultimately disrupting neuronal function. Astrocytes secrete tissue inhibitor of(More)
HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) is an important complication of HIV-1 infection. Reactive astrogliosis is a key pathological feature in HAD brains and in other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Activated astroglia may play a critical role in CNS inflammatory diseases such as HAD. In order to test the hypothesis that activated astrocytes cause neuronal(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in senile plaques colocalized with activated microglia and astrocytes. Recent studies suggest that CXCL8 is involved in the AD pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the cellular sources of CXCL8 in the central nervous system during AD(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV)-1 leads to some form of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in approximately half of the cases. The mechanisms by which astrocytes contribute to HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD), the most severe form of HAND, still remain unresolved. HIV-1-encephalitis (HIVE), a pathological(More)
HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)-relevant proinflammatory cytokines robustly induce astrocyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). As TIMP-1 displays pleotropic functions, we hypothesized that TIMP-1 expression may serve as a neuroprotective response of astrocytes. Previously, we reported that chronically activated astrocytes fail to maintain(More)
Reactive astrogliosis is a key pathological aspect of neuroinflammatory disorders including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurological disease. On the basis of previous data that showedastrocytes activated with interleukin (IL)-1beta induce neuronal injury, we analyzed global gene changes in IL-1beta-activated human astrocytes by(More)
CD38 is a 45-kD ectoenzyme involved in the synthesis of potent calcium (Ca(2+))-mobilizing agents, cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (cADPR), and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP+). In HIV-1-infected patients, increased CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells is linked to immune system activation and progression of HIV-1 infection. However,(More)
Astrocytes play an important role in astrocyte-neuron homeostasis. In HIV-1-infected brain, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) activation of astrocytes contributes to neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-1β-activated-astrocytes-induced neurodegeneration in HIV-1-infected brain are largely unknown. We hypothesize that secretory factors(More)