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Amyloid precursor protein (APP), implicated in Alzheimer's disease, is a trans-membrane protein of undetermined function. APP is cleaved by gamma-secretase that releases the APP intracellular domain (AICD) in the cytoplasm. In vitro studies have implicated AICD in cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, but its biologic relevance has been uncertain(More)
Using genomic applications to glean insights into human biology, we systematically searched for nonsense single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that are rare in the general population but enriched in the Old Order Amish (Amish) due to founder effect. We identified two nonlinked, nonsense SNVs (R12X and W48X) in SLC13A1 (allele frequencies 0.29% and 0.74% in the(More)
Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) is a newly identified membrane protein reported to be involved in multiple vascular and thrombotic processes. While most studies to date have focused on the effects of this receptor in platelets, PEAR1 is located in multiple tissues including the endothelium, where it is most highly expressed. Our first(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show changes in brain activation patterns during visual and motor tasks that include decreases in the typical local network for a function and increases in other brain regions. OBJECTIVE To determine whether brain activation patterns associated with working memory are affected by MS. METHODS Activation of(More)
BACKGROUND Although improved epicardial blood flow (as assessed with either TIMI flow grades or TIMI frame count) has been related to reduced mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs, the relationship of myocardial perfusion (as assessed on the coronary arteriogram) to mortality has not been examined. METHODS AND RESULTS A new, simple(More)
Obesity has been linked to the human gut microbiota; however, the contribution of gut bacterial species to the obese phenotype remains controversial because of conflicting results from studies in different populations. To explore the possible dysbiosis of gut microbiota in obesity and its metabolic complications, we studied men and women over a range of(More)
Information processing speed and episodic memory are two commonly affected cognitive abilities in MS. Insights into the mechanisms of and relationships between these abilities have recently come from structural neuroimaging techniques, but few studies have used fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), a neuroimaging sequence known to be sensitive to(More)
Weaning in the piglet is a stressful event associated with gastrointestinal disorders and increased disease susceptibility. Although stress is thought to play a role in postweaning intestinal disease, the mechanisms by which stress influences intestinal pathophysiology in the weaned pig are not understood. The objectives of these experiments were to(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease; little is known, however, about thoracic aortic calcification (AC). Our goal was to characterize risk factors for CAC and AC and to estimate the genetic contribution to their variation. METHODS AND RESULTS The presence and quantity of CAC and AC(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a major cardiovascular disease risk factor. Genetic factors are an important determinant of LDL-C levels. METHODS To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LDL-C and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, we performed a genome-wide association study of LDL-C in 841(More)