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Amyloid precursor protein (APP), implicated in Alzheimer's disease, is a trans-membrane protein of undetermined function. APP is cleaved by gamma-secretase that releases the APP intracellular domain (AICD) in the cytoplasm. In vitro studies have implicated AICD in cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, but its biologic relevance has been uncertain(More)
Using genomic applications to glean insights into human biology, we systematically searched for nonsense single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that are rare in the general population but enriched in the Old Order Amish (Amish) due to founder effect. We identified two nonlinked, nonsense SNVs (R12X and W48X) in SLC13A1 (allele frequencies 0.29% and 0.74% in the(More)
Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) is a newly identified membrane protein reported to be involved in multiple vascular and thrombotic processes. While most studies to date have focused on the effects of this receptor in platelets, PEAR1 is located in multiple tissues including the endothelium, where it is most highly expressed. Our first(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show changes in brain activation patterns during visual and motor tasks that include decreases in the typical local network for a function and increases in other brain regions. OBJECTIVE To determine whether brain activation patterns associated with working memory are affected by MS. METHODS Activation of(More)
Obesity has been linked to the human gut microbiota; however, the contribution of gut bacterial species to the obese phenotype remains controversial because of conflicting results from studies in different populations. To explore the possible dysbiosis of gut microbiota in obesity and its metabolic complications, we studied men and women over a range of(More)
Information processing speed and episodic memory are two commonly affected cognitive abilities in MS. Insights into the mechanisms of and relationships between these abilities have recently come from structural neuroimaging techniques, but few studies have used fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), a neuroimaging sequence known to be sensitive to(More)
About 20% of adults are persistently colonized with S. aureus in the anterior nares. Host genetic factors could contribute susceptibility to this phenotype. The objective of this study was to determine whether the phenotype of persistent S. aureus colonization aggregates in family members who live in different households. Healthy adults and their eligible(More)
BACKGROUND Bone-marrow derived progenitor cells (PCs) may play a role in maintaining vascular health by actively repairing damaged endothelium. The purpose of this study in asymptomatic Old Order Amish men (n = 90) without hypertension or diabetes was to determine if PC count, as determined by CD34+ cell count in peripheral blood, was associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the(More)
BACKGROUND School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs can substantially enhance the sub-optimal coverage achieved under existing delivery strategies. Randomized SLIV trials have shown these programs reduce laboratory-confirmed influenza among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children. This work explores the effectiveness of a SLIV program in(More)