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CONTEXT Clopidogrel therapy improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes and following percutaneous coronary intervention by inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-dependent platelet activation. However, nonresponsiveness is widely recognized and is related to recurrent ischemic events. OBJECTIVE To identify gene variants(More)
Amyloid precursor protein (APP), implicated in Alzheimer's disease, is a trans-membrane protein of undetermined function. APP is cleaved by gamma-secretase that releases the APP intracellular domain (AICD) in the cytoplasm. In vitro studies have implicated AICD in cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, but its biologic relevance has been uncertain(More)
INTRODUCTION Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the primary enzyme responsible for converting clopidogrel into biologically inactive carboxylic acid metabolites. METHODS We genotyped a functional variant in CES1, G143E, in participants of the Pharmacogenomics of Anti-Platelet Intervention (PAPI) study (n=566) and in 350 patients with coronary heart disease(More)
This study was designed to determine the factors that contribute to interindividual variation in the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. We measured platelet response to aspirin in 745 (400 men and 345 women) drug-naive asymptomatic subjects of the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study. Whole blood platelet aggregometry was performed to assess(More)
CONTEXT Although numerous epidemiologic studies have documented associations between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, the mechanisms underlying this association remain to be clarified. One hypothesis is that hyperlipidemia may be a common predisposing factor to both atherosclerotic heart disease and bone fragility. OBJECTIVE To evaluate this, we(More)
Using genomic applications to glean insights into human biology, we systematically searched for nonsense single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that are rare in the general population but enriched in the Old Order Amish (Amish) due to founder effect. We identified two nonlinked, nonsense SNVs (R12X and W48X) in SLC13A1 (allele frequencies 0.29% and 0.74% in the(More)
Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) is a newly identified membrane protein reported to be involved in multiple vascular and thrombotic processes. While most studies to date have focused on the effects of this receptor in platelets, PEAR1 is located in multiple tissues including the endothelium, where it is most highly expressed. Our first(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have identified a locus on chromosome 9p21.3 to be strongly associated with myocardial infarction/coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying these associations, we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this region would be associated with(More)
Obesity has been linked to the human gut microbiota; however, the contribution of gut bacterial species to the obese phenotype remains controversial because of conflicting results from studies in different populations. To explore the possible dysbiosis of gut microbiota in obesity and its metabolic complications, we studied men and women over a range of(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely because of the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. METHODS The HAPI Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to(More)