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We conducted a prospective case-control study to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features, and systemic antibody responses of cryptosporidiosis in Bangladeshi children. Forty-six children presenting to the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh in Dhaka, Bangladesh with diarrhea and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the stool(More)
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of Leishmania-infected sand flies. Here we show for the first time the ability of Maxadilan (Max), a vasodilatory peptide isolated from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and salivary gland lysate (SGL) from Phlebotomus papatasi to decrease the secretion of Type 1 cytokines and to enhance the(More)
Although Cryptospridium hominis is the dominant Cryptosporidium species infecting humans, immune responses to cognate antigens in C. hominis-infected persons have not been reported. We investigated antibody responses to the immunodominant gp15 antigen from C. hominis and C. parvum, in C. hominis-infected Bangladeshi children less than five years of age with(More)
Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite that is transmitted to the mammalian host by its sand fly vector when the fly probes in the host's skin for a blood meal and injects the parasite within its saliva. In mice experimentally infected with L. major, outgrowth of CD4 type 1 (Th1) cells leads to resolution of the infection, but outgrowth of type 2 (Th2)(More)
Resistance to and control of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in mice in the absence of adaptive immunity appears to be gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) dependent. Using an IFN-gamma-neutralizing antibody in a murine model, we demonstrated increased susceptibility to infection within 24 h. We correlated this early resistance and control with increased mucosal(More)
Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of diarrhea worldwide. In normal hosts, infection is self-limited and associated with seroconversion and partial immunity to reinfection. Immunity is associated with interferon gamma (IFNgamma) production. Cryptosporidium surface proteins gp15 and gp40 are among the immunodominant proteins in terms of antibody(More)
While the response to Leishmania major is well characterized in mice, there is much less known about the human immune response, particularly early after exposure to the parasite. Therefore, we developed a primary in vitro (PIV) system that allowed us to address these questions. We co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Leishmania-naive donors(More)
Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania spp. In murine leishmaniasis, a T helper cell type-I (Th1) response, characterized by the secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma is necessary for clearing the infection. whereas a Th2 response, accompanied by the production of interleukin (IL)-5, can exacerbate the disease. Moreover, the early(More)
Nonlinear problems arising in modeling applications are frequently parameter dependent, so that families of solutions are of interest. Such problems naturally lend themselves to interactive computation that exploits parameter continuation methods combined with visualization techniques. Visualization provides both understanding of the solution set and(More)
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