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Neuroactive insecticides are the principal means of protecting crops, people, livestock, and pets from pest insect attack and disease transmission. Currently, the four major nerve targets are acetylcholinesterase for organophosphates and methylcarbamates, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for neonicotinoids, the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor/chloride(More)
CONTEXT Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE To study the morphology of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. (More)
OBJECTIVE The role of the thalamus in the genesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains poorly understood. The authors used anatomical MRI to examine the morphology of the thalamus in youths with ADHD and healthy comparison youths. METHOD The authors examined 46 youths with ADHD and 59 comparison youths 8-18 years of age in a(More)
OBJECTIVE Disturbances in the basal ganglia portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits likely contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors examined the morphologic features of the basal ganglia nuclei (caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) in children with ADHD. METHOD A total of 104 individuals(More)
Subjective perceptions of the senses of polysemous English words are collected in questionnaire studies and the effects of variability in semantic distances among these senses are examined in an experiment. In the first of two questionnaire studies, native speakers produce meanings for 175 polysemous words; from their responses, the most frequently produced(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroimaging data suggest that deficits in ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) function in bipolar disorder (BD) progress during adolescence and young adulthood. However, the developmental trajectory of VPFC morphological abnormalities in BD is unknown. This study investigated potential age-dependent volume abnormalities in VPFC in BD. METHODS(More)
The brain disturbances that place a person at risk for developing depression are unknown. We imaged the brains of 131 individuals, ages 6 to 54 years, who were biological descendants (children or grandchildren) of individuals identified as having either moderate to severe, recurrent, and functionally debilitating depression or as having no lifetime history(More)
This study examined the relationship between the development of theory of mind and the development of the belief terms think, know, and guess. Children with autism and Asperger syndrome, matched to children with specific language impairment and normal development, completed false belief, belief term comprehension, and belief term expression tasks. The(More)
CONTEXT The basal ganglia and thalamus together connect in parallel closed-loop circuits with the cortex. Previous imaging studies have shown modifications of the basal ganglia and cortical targets in individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS), but less is known regarding the role of the thalamus in TS pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE To study the morphological(More)
The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) plays a crucial role in excitatory neurotransmission and is an important target for drugs and insecticides. Diverse nAChR subtypes with various subunit combinations confer differential selectivity for nicotinic drugs. We investigated the subtype selectivity of nAChR agonists by comparing two ACh-binding(More)