Katheryn Meek

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DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) function to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in G2 phase with HR preferentially repairing heterochromatin-associated DSBs (HC-DSBs). Here, we examine the regulation of repair pathway usage at two-ended DSBs in G2. We identify the speed of DSB repair as a major component(More)
Mammalian cells repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through either homologous recombination or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). V(D)J recombination, a cut-and-paste mechanism for generating diversity in antigen receptors, relies on NHEJ for repairing DSBs introduced by the Rag1-Rag2 protein complex. Animals lacking any of the seven known NHEJ factors(More)
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is central to the process of nonhomologous end joining because it recognizes and then binds double strand breaks initiating repair. It has long been appreciated that DNA-PK protects DNA ends to promote end joining. Here we review recent work from our laboratories and others demonstrating that DNA-PK can regulate end(More)
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays an essential role in nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) by initially recognizing and binding to DNA breaks. We have shown that in vitro, purified DNA-PK undergoes autophosphorylation, resulting in loss of activity and disassembly of the kinase complex. Thus, we have suggested that autophosphorylation of the(More)
DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most serious form of DNA damage. If not repaired they can lead to cell death. If misrepaired DSBs contribute to chromosomal aberrations and genomic instability. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is one of two major pathways for the repair of DSBs in human cells. Proteins known to be required for NHEJ include the(More)
Two highly conserved double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), function in all eukaryotes. How a cell chooses which pathway to utilize is an area of active research and debate. During NHEJ, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions as a "gatekeeper" regulating DNA end access.(More)
Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks can lead to apoptosis or tumorigenesis. In mammals double-strand breaks are repaired mainly by nonhomologous end-joining mediated by the DNA-PK complex. The core protein of this complex, DNA-PKcs, is a DNA-dependent serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates protein targets as well as itself. Although the(More)
Early during retroviral infection, a fraction of the linear reverse-transcribed viral DNA genomes become circularized by cellular enzymes, thereby inactivating the genomes for further replication. Prominent circular DNA forms include 2-long-terminal repeat (LTR) circles, made by DNA end joining, and 1-LTR circles, produced in part by homologous(More)
The gene product of XRCC4 has been implicated in both V(D)J recombination and the more general process of double strand break repair (DSBR). To date its role in these processes is unknown. Here, we describe biochemical characteristics of the murine XRCC4 protein. XRCC4 expressed in insect cells exists primarily as a disulfide-linked homodimer, although it(More)
The protein kinase activity of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the process of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). However, to date, the only target shown to be functionally relevant for the enzymatic role of DNA-PK in NHEJ is the large catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs itself. In vitro,(More)