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DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) function to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in G2 phase with HR preferentially repairing heterochromatin-associated DSBs (HC-DSBs). Here, we examine the regulation of repair pathway usage at two-ended DSBs in G2. We identify the speed of DSB repair as a major component(More)
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is one of the primary pathways for the repair of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells. Proteins required for NHEJ include the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku, XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV. Current models predict that DNA-PKcs, Ku, XRCC4 and DNA(More)
Mammalian cells repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through either homologous recombination or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). V(D)J recombination, a cut-and-paste mechanism for generating diversity in antigen receptors, relies on NHEJ for repairing DSBs introduced by the Rag1-Rag2 protein complex. Animals lacking any of the seven known NHEJ factors(More)
The mechanisms by which cells accurately distinguish between DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends and telomeric DNA ends remain poorly defined. Recent investigations have revealed intriguing interactions between DNA repair and telomeres. We were the first to report a requirement for the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein DNA-dependent protein kinase(More)
Caffeine inhibits cell cycle checkpoints, sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation-induced cell killing and inhibits the protein kinase activity of two cell cycle checkpoint regulators, Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR). In contrast, caffeine has been reported to have little effect on the protein kinase activity of the(More)
XRCC4 and XLF are structurally related proteins important for DNA Ligase IV function. XRCC4 forms a tight complex with DNA Ligase IV while XLF interacts directly with XRCC4. Both XRCC4 and XLF form homodimers that can polymerize as heterotypic filaments independently of DNA Ligase IV. Emerging structural and in vitro biochemical data suggest that XRCC4 and(More)
Potential roles of the abasic site lyase activity associated with AlkB homolog 1 (ALKBH1) were assessed by studies focusing on the two cellular processes that create abasic sites as intermediates: base excision repair and class switch recombination. Alkbh1(-/-) pups (lacking exon 3) were born at a lower than expected frequency from heterozygous parents,(More)
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) was identified as an activity and as its three component polypeptides 25 and 15 years ago, respectively. It has been exhaustively characterized as being absolutely dependent on free double stranded DNA ends (to which it is directed by its regulatory subunit, Ku) for its activation as a robust nuclear(More)
DNA-PK is a protein complex that consists of a DNA-binding, regulatory subunit [Ku] and a larger approximately 465 kDa catalytic subunit [DNA-PKcs], a serine/threonine protein kinase. The kinase activity of DNA-PKcs resides between residues 3745 and 4013, a PI3 kinase domain. Another recognized domain within this large protein is a leucine zipper (LZ) motif(More)
Previously, we showed that perfusion of plasma from hosts bearing breast adenocarcinoma over immobilized staphylococcal protein A resulted in objective tumor regressions. In the present study, sera perfused in vitro over immobilized staphylococcal protein A were analyzed by physicochemical and immunochemical methods to characterize newly formed products.(More)