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Most research describing the biological response to unemployment appears appropriately motivated by clinical or public health concerns and focuses on death, disease, and medical care. We argue that expanding the work to include other outcomes could contribute to basic science. As an example, we use the response to mass layoffs to discriminate between two(More)
Political pronouncements and policy statements include much conjecture concerning the health and behavioral effects of economic decline. We both summarize empirical research concerned with those effects and suggest questions for future research priorities. We separate the studies into groups defined by questions asked, mechanisms invoked, and outcomes(More)
Inflammatory cytokine levels predict a wide range of human diseases including depression, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune disease, general morbidity, and mortality. Stress and social experiences throughout the lifecourse have been associated with inflammatory processes. We conducted studies in humans and laboratory rats to examine the(More)
BACKGROUND Theory suggests that natural selection conserved reactivity in part because highly reactive women spontaneously abort less fit conceptuses, particularly small males. Other literature argues that high reactivity manifests clinically as anxiety disorders. If true, births to women diagnosed with anxiety disorders should exhibit a low secondary sex(More)
Much literature argues that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which stressed females cull frail males in utero. This argument implies that males from low sex ratio birth cohorts should, on average, live longer than those from high sex ratio cohorts. Research reports such associations but these tests use completed lifespan as the outcome and,(More)
Evolutionary theory, when coupled with research from epidemiology, demography, and population endocrinology, suggests that contracting economies affect the fitness and health of human populations via natural selection in utero. We know, for example, that fetal death increases more among males than females when the economy unexpectedly contracts; that(More)
We find support for the hypothesis that changes in the monthly odds of a twin among live-born males predict subsequent and opposite changes in the odds of a twin among live-born females. The hypothesis arises from the long standing argument that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which pregnant women in stressed populations spontaneously abort(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine temporal trends in race-specific neonatal death in California to determine whether the overall decline in mortality attenuated the paradoxical survival advantage of very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) non-Hispanic black infants relative to VLBW non-Hispanic white infants. STUDY DESIGN The data set comprised the(More)
OBJECTIVES Antagonists in the debate over whether the maternal stress response during pregnancy damages or culls fetuses have invoked the theory of selection in utero to support opposing positions. We describe how these opposing arguments arise from the same theory and offer a novel test to discriminate between them. Our test, rooted in reports from(More)
Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this(More)