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Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger(More)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), particularly those induced by ionizing radiation (IR), are complex lesions that can be cytotoxic if not properly repaired. IR-induced DSB often have DNA termini modifications, including thymine glycols, ring fragmentation, 3'-phosphoglycolates, 5'-hydroxyl groups, and abasic sites. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major(More)
Artemis is a member of the beta-CASP family of nucleases in the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily of hydrolases. Artemis has been demonstrated to be involved in V(D)J-recombination and in the NHEJ-catalyzed repair of DNA DSBs. In vitro, both DNA-PK independent 5'-3' exonuclease activities and DNA-PK dependent endonuclease activity have been attributed to(More)
PURPOSE To investigate SGI-110 as a "chemosensitizer" in ovarian cancer and to assess its effects on tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and chemoresponsiveness-associated genes silenced by DNA methylation in ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Several ovarian cancer cell lines were used for in vitro and in vivo platinum resensitization studies. Changes in DNA(More)
DNA-PKcs and Ku are essential components of the complex that catalyzes non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Ku, a heterodimeric protein, binds to DNA ends and facilitates recruitment of the catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs. We have investigated the effect of DNA strand orientation and sequence bias on the activation of DNA-PK. In(More)
The repair of DNA damage is a complex process that relies on particular pathways to remedy specific types of damage to DNA. The range of insults to DNA includes small, modest changes in structure including mismatched bases and simple methylation events to oxidized bases, intra- and interstrand DNA crosslinks, DNA double strand breaks and protein-DNA(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is an essential component of the nonhomologous end joining pathway (NHEJ), responsible for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Ku binds a DSB and recruits the catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs, where it is activated once the kinase is bound to the DSB. The precise mechanism by which DNA activates DNA-PK remains unknown.(More)
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a PI3-kinase-like kinase (PIKK) associated with DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and cell cycle control. We have previously reported comparable efficiencies of DSB repair in nuclear extracts from both ATM deficient (A-T) and control (ATM+) cells; however, the repair products from the A-T nuclear extracts contained(More)
DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are among the most lethal forms of DNA damage and, in humans, are repaired predominantly by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. NHEJ is initiated by the Ku70/80 heterodimer binding free DNA termini and then recruiting the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the catalytically active(More)
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