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Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a complex trait with evidence that the clinical spectrum includes both microform and subepithelial lip defects. We identified missense and nonsense mutations in the BMP4 gene in 1 of 30 cases of microform clefts, 2 of 87 cases with subepithelial defects in the orbicularis oris muscle (OOM), 5 of 968 cases of(More)
It is known that the squirrel monkey, marmoset, and other related New World (NW) monkeys possess three high-frequency alleles at the single X-linked photopigment locus, and that the spectral sensitivity peaks of these alleles are within those delimited by the human red and green pigment genes. The three alleles in the squirrel monkey and marmoset have been(More)
To address the controversy surrounding DRD2 and alcoholism, we performed linkage and association studies utilizing alcoholic men from high-density families largely uncontaminated by other psychopathology and female alcoholics for whom secondary drug dependence (averaging 10 years later onset) was a prominent feature. The males and females were combined for(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through digital three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry. DESIGN Nineteen standard craniofacial measurements were repeatedly obtained on 20 subjects by two independent observers, using calipers and 3D photos (obtained with a Genex 3D camera system), both with and(More)
Pedigree segregation analysis was used to examine several one- and two-locus models of the inheritance of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste deficiency that extend the traditional one-locus recessive model by the addition of either another allele or another locus, and in some cases predict two types of nontasters. These models allow nontaster by nontaster(More)
Nonsyndromic cleft lip+/-cleft palate is a complex disease with a wide phenotypic spectrum; occult defects of the superior orbicularis oris muscle may represent the mildest subclinical form of the lip portion of the phenotype. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography to compare the frequency of discontinuities in the OO muscle in 525 unaffected(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that both reduction in P300 amplitude and the presence of the A1 allele are risk markers for alcoholism. We hypothesized that demonstration of a relationship between the marker and the trait in young children who had not begun to drink regularly would provide evidence for dopaminergic mediation of the reduction in P300 often(More)
Activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway appears to promote drug- and alcohol-seeking behavior in laboratory animals. Results for association and linkage analysis between various alcohol dependence phenotypes and the dopamine receptors have been quite mixed. Similarly, both positive and negative results have been presented concerning dopamine receptor(More)
Numerous studies have described altered patterns of craniofacial form in the unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic clefts. Unfortunately, results from such studies have been highly variable and have failed to provide a reliable method for differentiating "at-risk" relatives from controls. In the present study, we compared craniofacial shape(More)