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It is known that the squirrel monkey, marmoset, and other related New World (NW) monkeys possess three high-frequency alleles at the single X-linked photopigment locus, and that the spectral sensitivity peaks of these alleles are within those delimited by the human red and green pigment genes. The three alleles in the squirrel monkey and marmoset have been(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that both reduction in P300 amplitude and the presence of the A1 allele are risk markers for alcoholism. We hypothesized that demonstration of a relationship between the marker and the trait in young children who had not begun to drink regularly would provide evidence for dopaminergic mediation of the reduction in P300 often(More)
Mammalian sex chromosomes are divided into sex-specific and pseudoautosomal regions. Sequences in the pseudoautosomal region recombine between the sex chromosomes; the sex-specific sequences normally do not. The interface between sex-specific and pseudoautosomal sequences is the pseudoautosomal boundary. The boundary is the centromeric limit to(More)
The Pittsburgh Oral-Facial Cleft study was begun in 1993 with the primary goal of identifying genes involved in nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in a variety of populations worldwide. Based on the results from a number of pilot studies and preliminary genetic analyses, a new research focus was added to the Pittsburgh Oral-Facial Cleft study in 1999: to(More)
The mammalian X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a common, nearly homologous chromosome pair. Although there is little sequence similarity between the mouse or the human X and Y, there are several regions in which moderate to extensive sequence homologies have been found, including, but not limited to, the so-called pseudoautosomal(More)
Activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway appears to promote drug- and alcohol-seeking behavior in laboratory animals. Results for association and linkage analysis between various alcohol dependence phenotypes and the dopamine receptors have been quite mixed. Similarly, both positive and negative results have been presented concerning dopamine receptor(More)
Measurements of the hand are common in studies that use anthropometric data. However, despite widespread usage, relatively few studies have formally assessed the degree of measurement error associated with standard measurements of the hand. This is significant because high amounts of measurement error can invalidate statistical results. In this paper,(More)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a complex disorder with a range of phenotypic manifestations and a birth prevalence that varies by population (1/500-1/2,000). Investigators have postulated that CL/P cases may have abnormal brain development, citing structural brain differences, and cognitive impairments in affected individuals. Previously,(More)
Two data sets are analyzed for linkage between the PTC and Kell blood group loci. The original report of close linkage for these loci was that of Conneally et al. (1976), where the maximum likelihood estimate of theta was 0.05. These two new data sets give a combined maximum likelihood estimate of theta m = f = 0.28. Estimating the recombination frequency(More)
Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The(More)