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Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and is associated with hamartoma formation in multiple organ systems. The neurological manifestations of TSC are particularly challenging and include infantile spasms, intractable epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. Progress(More)
B-RAF is the most frequently mutated protein kinase in human cancers. The finding that oncogenic mutations in BRAF are common in melanoma, followed by the demonstration that these tumours are dependent on the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, offered hope that inhibition of B-RAF kinase activity could benefit melanoma patients. Herein, we describe the structure-guided(More)
This study addresses the role of PTEN loss in intrinsic resistance to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720. Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue array covering all stages of melanocytic neoplasia (n = 192) revealed PTEN expression to be lost in >10% of all melanoma cases. Although PTEN expression status did not predict for sensitivity to the growth inhibitory(More)
The cloning of the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 nearly two decades ago helped set in motion an avalanche of research exploring how genomic information can be optimally applied to identify and clinically care for individuals with a high risk of developing cancer. Genetic testing for mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and other breast cancer(More)
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men. Despite a considerable familial component to TGCT risk, no genetic change that confers increased risk has been substantiated to date. The human Y chromosome carries a number of genes specifically involved in male germ cell development, and deletion of the AZFc region at Yq11 is the(More)
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have been expected to have a strong underlying genetic component. We conducted a genome-wide scan among 277 TGCT cases and 919 controls and found that seven markers at 12p22 within KITLG (c-KIT ligand) reached genome-wide significance (P < 5.0 x 10(-8) in discovery). In independent replication, TGCT risk was increased(More)
PURPOSE Disseminated melanoma is highly therapy resistant. The finding that 66% of melanomas harbor the activating BRAF(V600E) mutation has raised expectations for targeting the Ras/RAF/mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK pathway in melanoma. This study addresses the anti-melanoma activity of the MEK(More)
The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163(More)
INTRODUCTION Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or(More)
The demand for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening is increasing as their identification will affect medical management. However, both the contribution of different mutation types in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and whom should be offered testing for large genomic rearrangements have not been well established in the U.S. high-risk population. We define the prevalence and(More)