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A key feature of the mammalian brain is its capacity to adapt in response to experience, in part by remodeling of synaptic connections between neurons. Excitatory synapse rearrangements have been monitored in vivo by observation of dendritic spine dynamics, but lack of a vital marker for inhibitory synapses has precluded their observation. Here, we(More)
Light detected in the retina modulates several physiological processes including circadian photo-entrainment and pupillary light reflex. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) convey rod-cone and melanopsin-driven light input to the brain. Using EEGs and electromyograms, we show that acute light induces sleep in mice during their(More)
Both the physiological role of muscarinic receptors for bladder function and the therapeutic efficacy of antimuscarinic agents for overactive bladder syndrome are well documented. We investigated the effect of antimuscarinic agents with different subtype selectivity on urodynamic parameters in nonhuman primates and rodents and compared plasma levels of(More)
Older concepts of a hard-wired adult brain have been overturned in recent years by in vivo imaging studies revealing synaptic remodeling, now thought to mediate rearrangements in microcircuit connectivity. Using three-color labeling and spectrally resolved two-photon microscopy, we monitor in parallel the daily structural dynamics (assembly or removal) of(More)
The inhibition of bladder sensory transmission is critical for the pharmacotherapy of urine storage symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between pharmacologically-induced changes in cystometric parameters and spinal c-Fos expression in anesthetized rats with bladder hyperactivity induced by the intravesical infusion of acetic(More)
The discovery of vibegron, a potent and selective human β3-AR agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), is described. An early-generation clinical β3-AR agonist MK-0634 (3) exhibited efficacy in humans for the treatment of OAB, but development was discontinued due to unacceptable structure-based toxicity in preclinical species. Optimization of(More)
A series of conformationally restricted acetanilides were synthesized and evaluated as β3-adrenergic receptor agonists (β3-AR) for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Optimization studies identified a five-membered ring as the preferred conformational lock of the acetanilide. Further optimization of both the aromatic and thiazole regions led to(More)
Structural plasticity, the rewiring of synaptic connections, occurs not only during development, but is prevalent in the adult brain and likely represents the physical correlate of learning and memory. Removal or addition of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto a neuron can affect their relative influence on excitation in specific dendritic(More)
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