Katherine L Rafferty

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Among non-mammalian vertebrates, rigid skulls with tight sutural junctions are associated with high levels of cranial loading. The rigid skulls of mammals presumably act to resist the stresses of mastication. The pig, Sus scrofa, is a generalized ungulate with a diet rich in resistant foods. This report synthesizes previous work using strain gages bonded to(More)
The growth and morphology of craniofacial sutures are thought to reflect their functional environment. However, little is known about in vivo sutural mechanics. The present study investigates the strains experienced by the internasal, nasofrontal, and anterior interfrontal sutures during masticatory activity in 4-6-month-old miniature swine (Sus scrofa).(More)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a CD40-regulated gene in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs). We investigated the role of OPG in the immune system by generating opg(-/-) mice. Like its role as a regulator of bone metabolism, OPG also influences processes in the immune system, notably in B cell development. Ex vivo, opg(-/-) pro-B cells have enhanced proliferation to(More)
Modulation of force during mammalian mastication provides insight into force modulation in rhythmic, cyclic behaviors. This study uses in vivo bone strain data from the mandibular corpus to test two hypotheses regarding bite force modulation during rhythmic mastication in mammals: (1) that bite force is modulated by varying the duration of force production,(More)
The rostrum is a large diameter, thin-walled tubular structure that receives loads from the teeth. The rostrum can be conceptualized both as a rigid structure and as an assemblage of several bones that interface at sutures. Using miniature pigs, we measured in vivo strains in rostral bones and sutures to gain a better understanding of how the rostrum(More)
In this study we use molar microwear analyses to examine the trophic distinctions among various taxa of Malagasy subfossil lemurs. High resolution casts of the teeth of Megaladapis, Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, Babakotia, and Hadropithecus were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Megaladapis was undoubtedly a browsing folivore, but there are(More)
This study investigates the structural design of the femoral neck with respect to phylogeny, locomotor behavior, and body size in a large comparative sample of primates. Since a bone's strength is determined by the amount and arrangement of its constituent material, the amount and distribution of bone in the femoral neck are the focus of the present study.(More)
Paralysis of the masticatory muscles using botulinum toxin (BTX) is a common treatment for cosmetic reduction of the masseters as well as for conditions involving muscle spasm and pain. The effects of this treatment on mastication have not been evaluated, and claims that the treatment unloads the jaw joint and mandible have not been validated. If BTX(More)
Despite a number of previous biomechanical studies on the zygomatic arch, unanswered questions remain about its three-dimensional loading and growth. Using young miniature swine, we have for the first time recorded strains from both the medial and lateral aspects of the squamosal bone during mastication and masseter muscle stimulation. Strains from the(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the mechanical environment of the mandible is changed by osteotomy and fixation, as assessed by the measurement of bone strain on the condylar neck and mandibular corpus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Immediately following unilateral mandibular osteotomy and distractor placement, strain gauges were(More)