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BACKGROUND As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. METHODS We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART(More)
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB), but reports have been inconsistent. We genotyped the VDR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI in 1139 case patients and control subjects and 382 families from The Gambia, Guinea, and Guinea-Bissau. The(More)
BACKGROUND There is a mismatch between the wish of a patient with depression to have counselling and the prescription of antidepressants by the doctor. AIMS To determine whether counselling is as effective as antidepressants for depression in primary care and whether allowing patients to choose their treatment affects their response. METHOD A partially(More)
Little is published about the disclosure of parents' own HIV status to their children in Africa. Research shows that keeping family secrets from children, including those related to a parent's HIV status, can be detrimental to their psychological well-being and to the structure of the family. Further, children with HIV-positive parents have been shown to be(More)
BACKGROUND We aimed to assess whether interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) can predict the development of active tuberculosis and whether the predictive ability of these tests is better than that of the tuberculin skin test (TST). METHODS Longitudinal studies of the predictive value for active tuberculosis of in-house or commercial IGRAs were identified(More)
BACKGROUND Shortening the course of treatment for tuberculosis would be a major improvement for case management and disease control. This phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy and safety of a 4-month gatifloxacin-containing regimen for treating rifampin-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS We conducted a noninferiority, randomized, open-label,(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that radiography of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain is not associated with improved clinical outcomes or satisfaction with care. DESIGN Randomised unblinded controlled trial. SETTING 73 general practices in Nottingham, north Nottinghamshire, southern Derbyshire, north Lincolnshire, and north(More)
The immaturity of the immune system increases the susceptibility of young infants to infectious diseases and prevents the induction of protective immune responses by vaccines. We previously reported that Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces a potent Th1 response to mycobacterial Ags in newborns. In this study, we evaluated(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the performance of WHO clinical and CD4 cell count criteria for antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure among HIV-infected adults in a workplace HIV care programme in South Africa. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS We included initially ART-naive participants who remained on first-line therapy and had an evaluable HIV viral load result at(More)
We hypothesized that rapid presentation may be a general feature of tuberculosis (TB) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that limits the impact of HIV on the point prevalence of TB. To investigate this, we performed a cross-sectional HIV and TB disease survey with retrospective and prospective follow-up. HIV prevalence among 1,773(More)