Katherine Julie Diane Ashbourne Excoffon

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The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) plays a role in viral infection, maintenance of the junction adhesion complex in polarized epithelia, and modulation of cellular growth properties. As a viral receptor, the C-terminus appears to play no role indicating that the major function of CAR is to tether the virus to the cell. By contrast, the C-terminus(More)
Respiratory pathogens and toxins often assault the lung from the airway lumen. Airway epithelia may initiate and amplify inflammation in response to these attacks, but under certain conditions confinement of inflammation to the airway lumen may be beneficial to the host. Accordingly, we hypothesized that airway epithelial polarity allows different responses(More)
Respiratory viruses evolve to maintain infectivity levels that permit spread yet prevent host and virus extinction, resulting in surprisingly low infection rates. Respiratory viruses harnessed as gene therapy vectors have illustrated this limitation. We used directed evolution in an organotypic human airway model to generate a highly infectious(More)
Adenovirus is an important respiratory pathogen. Adenovirus fiber from most serotypes co-opts the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) to bind and enter cells. However, CAR is a cell adhesion molecule localized on the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelia. Separation from the lumen of the airways by tight junctions renders airway epithelia resistant to(More)
In well-differentiated human airway epithelia, the coxsackie B and adenovirus types 2 and 5 receptor (CAR) resides on the basolateral membrane. Replacing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of CAR with a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-CAR) allows apical localization of GPI-CAR, where it can bind adenovirus and enhance gene transfer in vitro.(More)
The naturally occurring human lipoprotein lipase S447X variant (LPLS447X) exemplifies a gain-of function mutation with significant benefits including decreased plasma triglycerides (TG), increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. The S447X variant may be associated with higher LPL catalytic activity;(More)
The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) is an essential regulator of cell growth and adhesion during development. The gene for CAR, CXADR, is located within the genomic locus for Usher syndrome type 1E (USH1E). Based on this and a physical interaction with harmonin, the protein responsible for USH1C, we hypothesized that CAR may be involved in(More)
During the immediate response to an inhaled allergen, there is an increase in the paracellular permeability of the airway epithelium.1 Histamine is an important agonist released during the immediate response to inhaled allergen. We hypothesized that histamine would increase human airway epithelial paracellular permeability and that it would do this by(More)
We previously used directed evolution in human airway epithelia to create adeno-associated virus 2.5T (AAV2.5T), a highly infectious chimera of AAV2 and AAV5 with one point mutation (A581T). We hypothesized that the mechanism for its increased infection may be a higher binding affinity to the surface of airway epithelia than its parent AAV5. Here, we show(More)
Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved(More)