Katherine J D Ashbourne Excoffon

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Respiratory pathogens and toxins often assault the lung from the airway lumen. Airway epithelia may initiate and amplify inflammation in response to these attacks, but under certain conditions confinement of inflammation to the airway lumen may be beneficial to the host. Accordingly, we hypothesized that airway epithelial polarity allows different responses(More)
Adenovirus is an important respiratory pathogen. Adenovirus fiber from most serotypes co-opts the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) to bind and enter cells. However, CAR is a cell adhesion molecule localized on the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelia. Separation from the lumen of the airways by tight junctions renders airway epithelia resistant to(More)
Respiratory viruses evolve to maintain infectivity levels that permit spread yet prevent host and virus extinction, resulting in surprisingly low infection rates. Respiratory viruses harnessed as gene therapy vectors have illustrated this limitation. We used directed evolution in an organotypic human airway model to generate a highly infectious(More)
The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) is an essential regulator of cell growth and adhesion during development. The gene for CAR, CXADR, is located within the genomic locus for Usher syndrome type 1E (USH1E). Based on this and a physical interaction with harmonin, the protein responsible for USH1C, we hypothesized that CAR may be involved in(More)
The naturally occurring human lipoprotein lipase S447X variant (LPLS447X) exemplifies a gain-of function mutation with significant benefits including decreased plasma triglycerides (TG), increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. The S447X variant may be associated with higher LPL catalytic activity;(More)
During the immediate response to an inhaled allergen, there is an increase in the paracellular permeability of the airway epithelium.1 Histamine is an important agonist released during the immediate response to inhaled allergen. We hypothesized that histamine would increase human airway epithelial paracellular permeability and that it would do this by(More)
We previously used directed evolution in human airway epithelia to create adeno-associated virus 2.5T (AAV2.5T), a highly infectious chimera of AAV2 and AAV5 with one point mutation (A581T). We hypothesized that the mechanism for its increased infection may be a higher binding affinity to the surface of airway epithelia than its parent AAV5. Here, we show(More)
Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved(More)
BACKGROUND Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute(More)
The physiological components that contribute to cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease are steadily being elucidated. Gene therapy could potentially correct these defects. CFTR-null pigs provide a relevant model to test gene therapy vectors. Using an in vivo selection strategy that amplifies successful capsids by replicating their genomes with helper adenovirus(More)