Katherine E. Wheeler

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OBJECTIVE This study compared the prevalence and risk factors of current probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across different occupations involved in rescue/recovery work at the World Trade Center site. METHOD Rescue and recovery workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry who reported working at the World Trade Center site(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have consistently documented declines in respiratory health after 11 September 2001 (9/11) among surviving first responders and other World Trade Center (WTC) rescue, recovery, and clean-up workers. OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to describe the risk of newly diagnosed asthma among WTC site workers and volunteers and to(More)
Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of approximately 11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of approximately 8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural(More)
We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the native surface topography and ultrastructure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus spores in water and in air. AFM was able to resolve the nanostructure of the exosporium and three distinctive classes of appendages. Removal of the exosporium exposed either a hexagonal honeycomb layer(More)
Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will(More)
Bacillus anthracis has four plasmid possible virulence genotypes: pXO1+/pXO2+, pXO1+/pXO2-, pXO1-/pXO2+ or pXO1-/pXO2-. Due to the lack of a specific chromosomal marker for B. anthracis, differentiation of the pXO1-/pXO2- form of B. anthracis from closely related Bacillus cereus group species is difficult. In this study, we evaluate the ability of sspE,(More)
The capability to image single microbial cell surfaces at nanometer scale under native conditions would profoundly impact mechanistic and structural studies of pathogenesis, immunobiology, environmental resistance, and biotransformation. Here, using in vitro atomic force microscopy, we have directly visualized high-resolution native structures of bacterial(More)
Although significant progress has been achieved in understanding the genetic and biochemical bases of the spore germination process, the structural basis for breaking the dormant spore state remains poorly understood. We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the high-resolution structural dynamics of single Bacillus atrophaeus spores germinating(More)
Heat waves can be lethal and routinely prompt public warnings about the dangers of heat. With climate change, extreme heat events will become more frequent and intense. However, little is known about public awareness of heat warnings or behaviors during hot weather. Awareness of heat warnings, prevention behaviors, and air conditioning (AC) prevalence and(More)
Using an automated scanning microscope, we report the surprising result that individual dormant spores of Bacillus thuringiensis grow and shrink in response to increasing and decreasing relative humidity. We simultaneously monitored the size of inorganic calibration particles. We found that the spores consistently swell in response to increased relative(More)