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INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is thought to arise in mammary epithelial stem cells. There is, therefore, a large amount of interest in identifying these cells. The breast is a complex tissue consisting of two epithelial layers (an outer myoepithelial/basal layer and an inner luminal epithelial layer) as well as a large non-epithelial component (fibroblasts,(More)
The role of estrogen in promoting mammary stem cell proliferation remains controversial. It is unclear if estrogen receptor (ER)-expressing cells have stem/progenitor activity themselves or if they act in a paracrine fashion to stimulate stem cell proliferation. We have used flow cytometry to prospectively isolate mouse mammary ER-expressing epithelial(More)
CONTEXT Most patient-reported outcome measurement tools in multiple sclerosis (MS) are geared toward less severely affected patients. Palliative care outcome measures have not been validated in patients with MS. OBJECTIVES To assess the psychometric properties of the Core-Palliative Care Outcome Scale (Core-POS) and POS-MS-Symptoms (POS-MS-S) in patients(More)
BACKGROUND England has one of the highest rates of hospital death in dementia in Europe. How this has changed over time is unknown. This study aimed to analyse temporal trends in place of death in dementia over a recent ten year period. METHODS Population-based study linking Office for National Statistics mortality data with regional variables, in England(More)
BACKGROUND With increasingly intensive treatments and population ageing, more people face complex treatment and care decisions. We explored patterns of the decision-making processes during critical care, and sources of conflict and resolution. METHODS Ethnographic study in two Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in an inner city hospital comprising:(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in the United Kingdom and elsewhere have suggested inequality of hospice provision with respect to factors such as age, diagnosis and socio-economic position. How this has changed over time is unknown. AIM To describe the factors associated with inpatient hospice death in England and examine how these have changed over time. DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about place of death in chronic neurological diseases. Mortality statistics are ideal for examining trends in place of death, but analyses are limited by coding rule changes. AIM To examine the relationship between place of death and underlying cause of death in Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and motor neurone disease(More)