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At diagnosis, 59 breast cancer patients reported on their overall optimism about life; 1 day presurgery, 10 days postsurgery, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, they reported their recent coping responses and distress levels. Optimism related inversely to distress at each point, even controlling for prior distress. Acceptance, positive reframing, and(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies indicate that breast cancer patients do not usually experience the devastating psychological consequences once viewed as inevitable. However, some adjust to the disease more poorly than others. This study examined the personality trait of optimism versus pessimism as a predictor of adjustment over the first year, postsurgery. (More)
By the age of 4 years, children (N0120) know the meaning of the word disgust as well as they know the meaning of anger and fear; for example, when asked, they are equally able to generate a plausible cause for each of these emotions. Yet, in tasks involving facial expressions (free labelling of faces, deciding whether or not a face expresses disgust, or(More)
PURPOSE Procedure (mastectomy v lumpectomy) and choice of procedure were examined as predictors of adjustment to breast cancer in a prospective study of the experiences of the first year after surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS Breast cancer patients were interviewed the day before surgery, 10 days after surgery, and at the 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month(More)
The optimal extent of axillary dissection in patients with breast cancer remains unclear. We report 278 total axillary lymphadenectomies (levels I, II, and III and Rotter's [interpectoral] nodes) that were performed in 264 closely followed up private patients. There have been no axillary recurrences to date (mean follow-up, 50 months). If only level I and(More)
BACKGROUND Palliative oxygen therapy is widely used for treatment of dyspnoea in individuals with life-limiting illness who are ineligible for long-term oxygen therapy. We assessed the effectiveness of oxygen compared with room air delivered by nasal cannula for relief of breathlessness in this population of patients. METHODS Adults from outpatient(More)
Optimal management of the axillary lymphatics in breast cancer patients remains a contentious subject. Axillary recurrence, while infrequent, may have very significant clinical consequences in the affected patient. Axillary sampling, partial and total axillary lymphadenectomy, radiotherapy, and surgery plus radiotherapy are discussed with attention to(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and endotoxin stimulate the expression of vascular endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecules. Here we describe a novel pathway of adhesion molecule induction that is independent of exogenous factors, but which is dependent on integrin signaling and cell-cell interactions. Cells plated onto gelatin, fibronectin,(More)
Sustained mechanical load is known to modulate endochondral growth in the immature skeleton, but it is not known what causes this mechanical sensitivity. This study aimed to quantify alterations in parameters of growth plate performance associated with mechanically altered growth rate. Vertebral and proximal tibial growth plates of immature rats and cattle,(More)