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People are inaccurate judges of how their abilities compare to others'. J. Kruger and D. Dunning (1999, 2002) argued that unskilled performers in particular lack metacognitive insight about their relative performance and disproportionately account for better-than-average effects. The unskilled overestimate their actual percentile of performance, whereas(More)
Recent research has identified a positivity effect in consumers' evaluations of agents, such as friends and professional critics, who provide word-of-mouth evaluations and recommendations. Specifically, agreement with an agent on previously loved alternatives is perceived as more diagnostic of the agent's suitability than agreement on previously hated(More)
The scales used to describe the attributes of different choice options are usually open to alternative expressions, such as inches versus feet or minutes versus hours. More generally, a ratio scale can be multiplied by an arbitrary factor (e.g., 12) while preserving all of the information it conveys about different choice alternatives. We propose that(More)
P revious endowment effect experiments have examined circumstances in which people encounter a single unit of a good (e.g., one chocolate). We contrast single-unit treatments with multiple-unit treatments in which participants encounter several units of a good (e.g., five chocolates). We observe endowment effects of typical magnitude for singleton holdings(More)
Burson, Thomas Kramer, and Nader Tavassoli for their helpful feedback on an earlier version of this manuscript. 2 We show that merely having a task-relevant product available for consumption (without actually consuming it) can improve performance. Participants with access to coffee during a reaction-speed task performed better than participants without(More)