Katherine B. Spencer

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Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a transmissible form of spongiform encephalopathy believed to be contracted from the consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infected beef products. To date over 100 individuals have developed this incurable disease. There have been no documented cases of iatrogenic infection, but there is a(More)
UNLABELLED There is a need to improve treatments for metastatic breast cancer. Here, we show the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in a MMTV-CreBrca1(f/f)Trp53(+/-) mouse model of breast cancer. When treated with the pan-class IA PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120, tumor doubling was delayed from(More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the commonest site for malignancy in Europe. The Commissioner for Health wishes to promote screening for colorectal, breast and cervical cancer in Europe. The aim of this study was to assess public knowledge of CRC in Europe and likely take up of free screening. To this end 20710 members of the public from 21 European countries(More)
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS Standardization of the endoscopic report is a key issue for future research in the field of digestive endoscopy. The Minimal Standard Terminology (MST) has been proposed by the European Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) as a structured language for production of computerized endoscopic reports. The aim of this study was(More)
In a time when racial prejudice is generally taboo and decision makers, including law enforcement officials, strenuously disavow the use of group-based stereotypes to make judgments that affect others, one might expect discriminatory outcomes to be unusual. However, research repeatedly indicates that discrimination is pervasive across many domains, and(More)
PURPOSE The adolescent and young adult (AYA) population is a growing group of survivors, exceeding more than 600,000, at high risk for late effects of cancer-directed therapy. While many guidelines exist for cancer survivorship care, choosing which to use for an AYA cancer survivor is challenging, yet vital, to ensure comprehensive follow-up care. METHODS(More)
This article explores psychological science on race bias and its implications in several domains of public policy, with special attention paid to biased policing as an illustrative example. Race bias arises from normal mental processes, many outside our conscious awareness and control. This research directly applies to public policy, especially where(More)
This article is the first of three related to social welfare policy in Sweden. It presents an overview of social services in Sweden highlighting its history, financing, and the various welfare programs offered in one of the more unique liberal democracies in the world. Sweden has had a long-standing historic commitment to the social welfare of its citizens.(More)