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Germ-line mutations of the APC gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominantly inherited disease in humans. Patients with FAP develop multiple benign colorectal tumors. Recently, a mouse lineage that exhibits an autosomal dominantly inherited predisposition to multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) was described. Linkage(More)
Mutations in the human APC gene caused various familial colon cancer syndromes. The Multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse provides an excellent model for familial colon cancer: it carries a mutant mouse Apc gene and develops many intestinal adenomas. Here, we analyze how this tumor phenotype is dramatically modified by genetic background. We report the(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 398 has emerged from pigs to cause human infections in Europe and North America. We used a new 62-strain S. aureus microarray (SAM-62) to compare genomes of isolates from three geographical areas (Belgium, Denmark, and Netherlands) to understand how CC398 colonizes different mammalian hosts.(More)
Many tissues, including the thymus, represent direct targets of estrogen action. In contrast to many estrogen responsive tissues, the thymus undergoes a profound atrophy in response to elevated levels of estrogens. The mechanism of estrogen-induced atrophy in the thymus is unknown; however, it appears not to involve massive thymocyte apoptosis. Here, we(More)
Phenotypic biotyping has traditionally been used to differentiate bacteria occupying distinct ecological niches such as host species. For example, the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus from sheep to coagulate ruminant plasma, reported over 60 years ago, led to the description of small ruminant and bovine S. aureus ecovars. The great majority of small(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotype 3 possess a mucoid capsule and cause disease associated with high mortality rates relative to other pneumococci. Phylogenetic analysis of a complete reference genome and 81 draft sequences from clonal complex 180, the predominant serotype 3 clone in much of the world, found most sampled isolates belonged to a clade(More)
The capsule polysaccharide locus (cps) is the site of the capsule biosynthesis gene cluster in encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae. A set of pneumococcal samples and non-pneumococcal streptococci from Denmark, the Gambia, the Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA were sequenced at the cps locus to elucidate serologically mistyped or non-typable(More)
Although the major food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni has been isolated from diverse animal, human and environmental sources, our knowledge of genomic diversity in C. jejuni is based exclusively on human or human food-chain-associated isolates. Studies employing multilocus sequence typing have indicated that some clonal complexes are more commonly(More)
We carried out multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 148 pneumococcal carriage isolates collected from children <24 months old in the Upper River Division, the Gambia. MLST revealed a diverse population. Seventy-six different sequence types (STs) were found, the most common of which were 802 and 919, associated with 23F and 6A serotypes, respectively.(More)
The polysaccharide capsule is a major virulence factor of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, S. pneumoniae strains lacking capsule do occur. Here, we report a nasopharyngeal isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae composed of a mixture of two phenotypes; one encapsulated (serotype 18C) and the other nonencapsulated, determined by(More)