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Hyperkinetic movements are unwanted or excess movements that are frequently seen in children with neurologic disorders. They are an important clinical finding with significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. However, the lack of agreement on standard terminology and definitions interferes with clinical treatment and research. We describe(More)
Mechanical factors related to patellofemoral pain syndrome and maltracking are poorly understood. Clinically, the Q-angle, J-sign, and lateral hypermobility commonly are used to evaluate patellar maltracking. However, these measures have yet to be correlated to specific three-dimensional patellofemoral displacements and rotations. Thus, we tested the(More)
Patellofemoral pain is widely accepted as one of the most common pathologies involving the knee, yet the etiology of this pain is still an open debate. Generalized joint laxity has been associated with patellofemoral pain, but is not often discussed as a potential source of patellar maltracking. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the complete(More)
In the pediatric shoulder, injury and pathology can disrupt the muscle force balance, resulting in severe functional losses. As little data exists pertaining to in vivo pediatric shoulder muscle function, musculoskeletal data are crucially needed to advance the treatment of pediatric shoulder pathology/injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to(More)
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based guideline for the use of neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS Two questions were asked: (1) What is the accuracy of median nerve cross-sectional area enlargement as measured with ultrasound for the diagnosis of CTS? (2) What added value,(More)
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most prevalent physical disability in childhood and includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations. This article focuses on current and future intervention strategies for improving mobility and participation during the lifespan for ambulatory children with CP. The provision and integration of physical therapy and(More)
This article will discuss many of the key concepts regarding chemodenervation and neurolysis in the management of spasticity. Topics that will be discussed include techniques for localization, strengths and limitations of various agents (botulinum toxin, phenol, and alcohol), the value of combination therapies, and the role of nerve blocks (diagnostic and(More)
BACKGROUND Patellar taping is widely used clinically to treat patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Although patellar taping has been demonstrated to reduce patellofemoral pain in patients with PFPS, the kinematic source for this pain reduction has not been identified. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in the(More)
Cerebral palsy is the most common developmental disorder causing a physical disability arising from an injury to the central nervous system. The majority of pediatric neurologists remain minimally involved in the rehabilitation of these children. Recent advances in basic and clinical neuroscience give hope that effective rehabilitation strategies, based on(More)
AIM Ankle-foot orthoses are the standard of care for foot drop in cerebral palsy (CP), but may overly constrain ankle movement and limit function in those with mild CP. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be a less restrictive and more effective alternative, but has rarely been used in CP. The primary objective of this study was to conduct the first(More)