Katharine C. Carter

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Paromomycin (PMM) has recently been introduced for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Although no clinical resistance has yet been reported, proactive vigilance should be warranted. The present in vitro study compared the outcome and stability of experimental PMM-resistance induction on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Cloned(More)
Sequencing studies showed that the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) heavy chain genes from sodium stibogluconate (SSG)-resistant (SSG-R) and SSG-susceptible (SSG-S) Leishmania donovani strains were identical, indicating that SSG resistance was related to quantitative differences in gamma-GCS expression rather than gene interstrain(More)
Previous studies comparing interleukin 4 receptor α (IL-4Rα)(-/-) and interleukin 4 (IL-4)(-/-) BALB/c mice have indicated that interleukin 13 (IL-13), whose receptor shares the IL-4Rα subunit with IL-4, plays a protective role during visceral leishmaniasis. We demonstrate that IL-13(-/-) BALB/c mice were less able to control hepatic growth of Leishmania(More)
In this study, we followed the genomic, lipidomic and metabolomic changes associated with the selection of miltefosine (MIL) resistance in two clinically derived Leishmania donovani strains with different inherent resistance to antimonial drugs (antimony sensitive strain Sb-S; and antimony resistant Sb-R). MIL-R was easily induced in both strains using the(More)
BACKGROUND Despite advances in the treatment, the morbidity and mortality rate associated with invasive aspergillosis remains unacceptably high (70-90%) in immunocompromised patients. Amphotericin B (AMB), a polyene antibiotic with broad spectrum antifungal activity appears to be a choice of treatment but is available only as an intravenous formulation;(More)
Among the essential elements of a theory of disease is the set of criteria that must be satisfied to establish that some specific factor is the cause of a particular disease. For example, in the germ theory various nonequivalent criteria have been proposed for establishing that specific microorganisms cause particular diseases.' Perhaps the most famous(More)
Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against(More)
BECAUSE one focus of Freud's work was his theory of infantile sexuality, there has been some interest in identifying other nineteenth-century writers who discussed this phenomenon.' Also, because of Freud's early papers on male hysteria, there has been interest in nineteenth-century beliefs about the occurrence of hysteria in males.2 Curiously enough,(More)