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Tissue injury is followed by formation of a provisional, fibrin-containing matrix. It is later on replaced by granulation tissue. Replacement involves extracellular proteolysis by fibrinolytic enzymes. Plasmin is a fibrinolytic proteinase and is generated from ubiquitous plasminogen by cell-derived urokinase-type (uPA) or tissue-type (tPA) plasminogen(More)
Neuronal and axonal damage is considered to be the main cause for long-term disability in multiple sclerosis. We analyzed the mechanism and kinetics of neuronal cell death in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) by combining an electrophysiological in vivo assessment of the optic pathway with(More)
Neurodegenerative processes determine the clinical disease course of multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory autoimmune CNS disease that frequently manifests with acute optic neuritis. None of the established multiple sclerosis therapies has been shown to clearly reduce neurodegeneration. In a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we recently(More)
Axonal destruction and neuronal loss occur early during multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory central nervous system disease that frequently manifests with acute optic neuritis. Glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta-1b (IFN-beta-1b) are two immunomodulatory agents that have been shown to decrease the frequency of MS relapses. However,(More)
Axonal destruction and neuronal loss occur early during multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory CNS disease that frequently manifests with acute optic neuritis. Available therapies mainly target the inflammatory component of the disease but fail to prevent neurodegeneration. To investigate the effect of minocycline on the survival of retinal ganglion(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS which leads to demyelination, axonal destruction and neuronal loss in the early stages. Available therapies mainly target the inflammatory component of the disease but fail to prevent neurodegeneration. To investigate the effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on the survival of(More)
Optic neuritis is one of the most common clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS. High-dosage methylprednisolone treatment has been established as the standard therapy of acute inflammation of the optic nerve (ON). The rationale for corticosteroid treatment lies in the antiinflammatory and(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), post-mortem studies of human brain tissue as well as data from animal models have shown that apoptosis of neurons occurs to a significant extent during this disease. As neurodegeneration in MS correlates with permanent neurological deficits in patients, understanding the mechanisms would be an important pre-condition for(More)
Interferon-beta-1a (IFN-beta-1a) is an approved treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). It improves the disease course by reducing the relapse rate as well as the persistent neurological deficits. Recent MRI and post-mortem studies revealed that neuronal and axonal damage are most relevant for chronic disability in MS patients. We have characterized(More)
Mechanical injury of tissues is followed by the formation of a provisional fibrin matrix, which is later replaced by granulation tissue. The fibrinolytic proteinase, plasmin, is thought to contribute to the displacement of the primary matrix. Plasmin is generated from the ubiquitous proenzyme plasminogen by plasminogen activators. The system of plasminogen(More)