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microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been linked to a number of disease-related signal transduction pathways. Several studies indicate that they are also involved in nociception. It is not clear, however, which miRNAs are important and which genes are modulated by miRNA-associated mechanisms. This study focuses on the regulation and(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to sensitization of pain pathways during neuropathic pain, but little is known about the primary sources of ROS production and how ROS mediate pain sensitization. Here, we show that the NADPH oxidase isoform Nox4, a major ROS source in somatic cells, is expressed in a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptors and(More)
Inhibitor-κB kinase ε (IKKε) was only recently identified as an enzyme with high homology to the classical I-κB kinase subunits, IKKα and IKKβ. Despite this similarity, it is mainly discussed as a repressor of viral infections by modulating type I IFNs. However, in vitro studies also showed that IKKε plays a role in the regulation of NF-κB activity, but the(More)
Atomoxetine (ATX), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is a non-stimulant approved for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little is known about the molecular basis for its therapeutic effect. The objective of this animal study was to determine alterations in gene expression patterns in the prefrontal cortex after(More)
miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that are important players in development, as well as in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Due to their regulatory role in protein expression, it has been assumed that they are associated with peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in the nervous system after nociceptive insults. However,(More)
p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in signal cascades relevant for nociceptive processing and neuropathic pain. Particularly, the recently described group B PAKs 4, 5 and 6 regulate MAP-kinases and the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, both of which have been linked to pain processing. However, a specific role of these PAKs in nociception has(More)
TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) is a non-canonical IκB kinase (IKK) involved in the regulation of type I interferons and of NF-κB signal transduction. It is activated by viral infections and inflammatory mediators and has therefore been associated with viral diseases, obesity, and rheumatoid arthritis. Its role in pain has not been investigated so far. Due to(More)
Engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) functions as a guanine exchange factor for Rac1 and was recently found to protect endothelial cells from apoptosis. Genome wide association studies suggest that polymorphisms within human elmo1 act as a potential contributing factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Yet, the function of ELMO1 with respect to(More)
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