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microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been linked to a number of disease-related signal transduction pathways. Several studies indicate that they are also involved in nociception. It is not clear, however, which miRNAs are important and which genes are modulated by miRNA-associated mechanisms. This study focuses on the regulation and(More)
miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that are important players in development, as well as in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Due to their regulatory role in protein expression, it has been assumed that they are associated with peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in the nervous system after nociceptive insults. However,(More)
Atomoxetine (ATX), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is a non-stimulant approved for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little is known about the molecular basis for its therapeutic effect. The objective of this animal study was to determine alterations in gene expression patterns in the prefrontal cortex after(More)
p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in signal cascades relevant for nociceptive processing and neuropathic pain. Particularly, the recently described group B PAKs 4, 5 and 6 regulate MAP-kinases and the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, both of which have been linked to pain processing. However, a specific role of these PAKs in nociception has(More)
UNLABELLED The activation of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) has been associated with beneficial effects such as improvement of hyperglycemic states in diabetes as well as reduction of obesity and inflammatory processes. Recent studies provide evidence for a further role of AMPK in models of acute and neuropathic pain. In this(More)
Inhibitor-κB kinase ε (IKKε) was only recently identified as an enzyme with high homology to the classical I-κB kinase subunits, IKKα and IKKβ. Despite this similarity, it is mainly discussed as a repressor of viral infections by modulating type I IFNs. However, in vitro studies also showed that IKKε plays a role in the regulation of NF-κB activity, but the(More)
IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) are two non-canonical IKKs which are involved in interferon regulatory factor (IRF) as well as nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling cascades. Both kinases have already been linked to the pathophysiology of several diseases and therefore been suggested as potential promising targets for the(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to sensitization of pain pathways during neuropathic pain, but little is known about the primary sources of ROS production and how ROS mediate pain sensitization. Here, we show that the NADPH oxidase isoform Nox4, a major ROS source in somatic cells, is expressed in a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptors and(More)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an attractive cell source for cartilage regeneration, but current in vitro chondrogenic differentiation protocols yield insufficient results. In search for shortcomings of iPSC chondrogenesis, this study investigated whether SOX9 protein was adequately regulated during multiphase chondrogenic differentiation of two(More)