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Patients with acquired chronic bilateral vestibular loss were recently found to have a significant impairment in spatial memory and navigation when tested with a virtual Morris water task. These deficits were associated with selective and bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus, which suggests that spatial memory and navigation also rely on vestibular input.(More)
Locomotion in humans and other vertebrates is based on spinal pattern generators, which are regulated by supraspinal control. Most of our knowledge about the hierarchical network of supraspinal locomotion centres derives from animal experiments, mainly in the cat. Here we summarize evidence that the supraspinal network of quadrupeds is conserved in humans(More)
The acquisition of special skills can induce plastic changes in the human hippocampus, a finding demonstrated in expert navigators (Maguire et al. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:4,398-403). Conversely, patients with acquired chronic bilateral vestibular loss develop atrophy of the hippocampus, which is associated with impaired spatial memory (Brandt et(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in sighted individuals previously showed parahippocampal and fusiform activations during locomotor imagery, which were interpreted to reflect visuospatial navigation. Concurrent deactivations of multisensory vestibular and somatosensory cortical areas may reflect suppression of vestibular and somatosensory input,(More)
The hippocampal formation, that is, the hippocampus proper and the parahippocampal region, is essential for various aspects of memory and plays an important role in human navigation. Navigational cues can be provided by both the visual system (e.g., landmarks, optic flow) and the vestibular system (e.g., estimation of direction during path integration).(More)
It has been shown in blind patients that the abolition of sensory input can lead to changes in white- and cortical gray-matter volumes. Here the white- and gray-matter changes found with whole brain voxel-based morphometry in 16 patients with complete chronic unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) due to vestibular schwannoma removal several years(More)
Patients with unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) experience oscillopsia (apparent motion of the visual scene) during rapid head movements due to increased retinal slip caused by vestibulo-ocular reflex impairment. Oscillopsia is always smaller than the net retinal slip and decreases over time in patients with acquired vestibular loss; this correlates with(More)
BACKGROUND Oculomotor disturbances and nystagmus are seen in many diseases of the nervous system, the vestibular apparatus, and the eyes, as well as in toxic and metabolic disorders. They often indicate a specific underlying cause. The key to diagnosis is systematic clinical examination of the patient's eye movements. This review deals mainly with central(More)
Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is the most frequent form of acquired persisting fixation nystagmus. It is hypothesized to occur when physiological inhibitory cerebellar input, namely of the flocculus, to the vestibular nuclei is inhibited. The second most frequent form of acquired nystagmus is upbeat nystagmus (UBN). UBN is probably caused by an imbalance of(More)
The hippocampal formation, including the parahippocampal gyrus, is known to be involved in different aspects of navigation and spatial orientation. Recently, bilateral parahippocampal activation during mental imagery of walking and running was demonstrated in fMRI. For the current study the question was whether distinct functional regions within the(More)