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Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) and related proteins stimulate actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. The isolated C-terminal VCA domain of WASp (containing Verprolin-like, Central and Acidic regions) is constitutively active but autoinhibited in the full-length protein. This study compared the ability of parts of VCA fused to the C terminus(More)
Locomotion in humans and other vertebrates is based on spinal pattern generators, which are regulated by supraspinal control. Most of our knowledge about the hierarchical network of supraspinal locomotion centres derives from animal experiments, mainly in the cat. Here we summarize evidence that the supraspinal network of quadrupeds is conserved in humans(More)
Patients with acquired chronic bilateral vestibular loss were recently found to have a significant impairment in spatial memory and navigation when tested with a virtual Morris water task. These deficits were associated with selective and bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus, which suggests that spatial memory and navigation also rely on vestibular input.(More)
The acquisition of special skills can induce plastic changes in the human hippocampus, a finding demonstrated in expert navigators (Maguire et al. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:4,398-403). Conversely, patients with acquired chronic bilateral vestibular loss develop atrophy of the hippocampus, which is associated with impaired spatial memory (Brandt et(More)
BACKGROUND Vestibular paroxysmia (VP), which is attributed to neurovascular cross-compression (NVCC), leads to vertiginous spells. Although VP was described more than 30 years ago by Jannetta and colleagues, we still need more reliable data on its diagnostic features and the efficacy of medical treatment. METHODS A follow-up study of 32 patients with(More)
The hippocampal formation, including the parahippocampal gyrus, is known to be involved in different aspects of navigation and spatial orientation. Recently, bilateral parahippocampal activation during mental imagery of walking and running was demonstrated in fMRI. For the current study the question was whether distinct functional regions within the(More)
Patients with unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) experience oscillopsia (apparent motion of the visual scene) during rapid head movements due to increased retinal slip caused by vestibulo-ocular reflex impairment. Oscillopsia is always smaller than the net retinal slip and decreases over time in patients with acquired vestibular loss; this correlates with(More)
It has been shown in blind patients that the abolition of sensory input can lead to changes in white- and cortical gray-matter volumes. Here the white- and gray-matter changes found with whole brain voxel-based morphometry in 16 patients with complete chronic unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) due to vestibular schwannoma removal several years(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in sighted individuals previously showed parahippocampal and fusiform activations during locomotor imagery, which were interpreted to reflect visuospatial navigation. Concurrent deactivations of multisensory vestibular and somatosensory cortical areas may reflect suppression of vestibular and somatosensory input,(More)