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To reveal the mechanism of processive strand separation by superfamily-2 (SF2) 3'-->5' helicases, we determined apo and DNA-bound crystal structures of archaeal Hel308, a helicase that unwinds lagging strands and is related to human DNA polymerase theta. Our structure captures the duplex-unwinding reaction, shows that initial strand separation does not(More)
To reveal mechanisms of DNA damage checkpoint initiation, we structurally and biochemically analyzed DisA, a protein that controls a Bacillus subtilis sporulation checkpoint in response to DNA double-strand breaks. We find that DisA forms a large octamer that consists of an array of an uncharacterized type of nucleotide-binding domain along with two(More)
The ABC ATPase RNase-L inhibitor (RLI) emerges as a key enzyme in ribosome biogenesis, formation of translation preinitiation complexes, and assembly of HIV capsids. To help reveal the structural mechanism of RLI, we determined the Mg2+-ADP bound crystal structure of the twin cassette ATPase of P. furiosus RLI at 1.9 A resolution and analyzed functional(More)
Exosomes emerge as central 3'-->5' RNA processing and degradation machineries in eukaryotes and archaea. We determined crystal structures of two 230 kDa nine subunit archaeal exosome isoforms. Both exosome isoforms contain a hexameric ring of RNase phosphorolytic (PH) domain subunits with a central chamber. Tungstate soaks identified three phosphorolytic(More)
The exosome, a large multisubunit complex with exoribonucleic activity, emerges as the central 3' RNA degradation and processing factor in eukaryotes and archaea. But how are the many RNA substrates of the exosome degraded in a processive, yet controlled manner? Recent functional and structural progress shows that the exosome is a macromolecular cage, where(More)
The strong overexpression of heterologous genes in Escherichia coli often leads to inhibition of cell growth, ribosome destruction, loss of culturability, and induction of stress responses, such as a heat shock-like response. Here we demonstrate that the general stress response, which is connected to the stress response regulator σS (σ38, rpoS gene(More)
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