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Arabidopsis thaliana has three membrane-located cytokinin receptors (AHK2, AHK3 and CRE1/AHK4), which are sensor histidine kinases containing a ligand-binding CHASE domain. Despite their structural similarity the role of these receptors differs in planta. Here we have explored which parameters contribute to signal specification. In a bacterial assay, the(More)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a serious human neurological disease caused by TBE virus (TBEV). However, the mechanisms of TBEV-caused pathogenesis remain unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, also defined as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is an important conserved molecular signaling pathway that modulates many biological(More)
Each year, up to 10,000 cases of infections with the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus that affect the central nervous system are reported in Europe and Asia. Due to the potentially severe adverse effects of post-exposure prophylaxis with TBE virus hyperimmunoglobulin, TBE can currently only be treated symptomatically. An RNA interference(More)
Serological and molecular evidence showed that a German female student became infected by Puumala hantavirus during mice trapping efforts in Finland. The incubation period before exhibiting clinical signs of nephropathia epidemica was as long as 6 weeks. Phylogenetic analysis of PUUV nucleic acid sequences amplified from the patient demonstrate that she was(More)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus causes one of the most important flaviviral infections of the human central nervous system in Europe and Asia. In recent years the rate of TBE infection has been raising and the virus has been spreading to new areas. Currently, the diagnosis of TBE is based on detection of specific antibodies in patients' sera which(More)
INTRODUCTION Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important flavivirus infections of the central nervous system, affecting humans in Europe and Asia. It is mainly transmitted by the bite of an infected tick and circulates among them and their vertebrate hosts. Until now, TBE risk analysis in Germany has been based on the incidence of(More)
There is still a considerable need for development of new tools and methods detecting specific viral proteins for the diagnosis and pathogenesis study of the Yellow fever virus (YFV). This study aimed to develop and characterize polyclonal peptide antisera for detection of YFV-C and -NS1 proteins. The antisera were used further to investigate NS1 protein(More)
In this paper we describe novel pH-responsive core-multishell (CMS) nanocarrier (pH-CMS), obtained by introducing an aromatic imine linker between the shell and the core. At a pH of 5 and lower the used imine linker was rapidly cleaved as demonstrated by NMR studies. The CMS nanocarriers were loaded with the dye Nile red (NR) and the anticancer drug(More)
Charge-conversional and reduction-sensitive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanogels were developed for efficient cancer treatment by enhanced cell uptake and intracellular triggered doxorubicin (DOX) release. These PVA nanogels were prepared in a straightforward manner by inverse nanoprecipitation via "click" reaction with an average diameter of 118nm. The(More)
This article describes a novel bioluminescence assay for detecting the proteolytic activity of Botulinum NeuroToxins (BoNT) in complex matrices. The assay is capable of detecting traces of BoNT in blood samples as well as in food drinks. The assay was responsive to BoNT/A subtypes 1 to 5, and serotype E3 in buffered solutions. It was responsive to filtered(More)