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GATA family transcription factors are core components of the vertebrate heart gene network. GATA factors also contribute to heart formation indirectly through regulation of endoderm morphogenesis. However, the precise impact of GATA factors on vertebrate cardiogenesis is masked by functional redundancy within multiple lineages. Early heart specification in(More)
Dormant Bacillus subtilis spores can be induced to germinate by nutrients, as well as by nonmetabolizable chemicals, such as a 1:1 chelate of Ca(2+) and dipicolinic acid (DPA). Nutrients bind receptors in the spore, and this binding triggers events in the spore core, including DPA excretion and rehydration, and also activates hydrolysis of the surrounding(More)
The spores of Bacillus subtilis show remarkable resistance to many environmental stresses, due in part to the presence of an outer proteinaceous structure known as the spore coat. GerQ is a spore coat protein essential for the presence of CwlJ, an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of the cortex during spore germination, in the spore coat. Here we show that(More)
Bacillus spores are highly resistant to many environmental stresses, owing in part to the presence of multiple "extracellular" layers. Although the role of some of these extracellular layers in resistance to particular stresses is known, the function of one of the outermost layers, the spore coat, is not completely understood. This study sought to determine(More)
The GerA nutrient receptor alone triggers germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with L-alanine or L-valine, and these germinations were stimulated by glucose and K+ plus the GerK nutrient receptor. The GerB nutrient receptor alone did not trigger spore germination with any nutrients but required glucose, fructose, and K+ (GFK) (termed cogerminants) plus(More)
Sporulation of a Bacillus subtilis strain (termed alpha(-) beta(-)) lacking the majority of the alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) that are synthesized in the developing forespore and saturate spore DNA exhibited a number of differences from that of the wild-type strain, including delayed forespore accumulation of dipicolinic acid,(More)
Bacillus subtilis spores can germinate with a 1:1 chelate of Ca(2+) and dipicolinic acid (DPA), a compound present at high levels in the spore core. Using a genetic screen to identify genes encoding proteins that are specifically involved in spore germination by Ca(2+)-DPA, three mutations were identified. One was in the gene encoding the cortex lytic(More)
After a few minutes of germination, nucleoids in the great majority of spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium were ring shaped. The major spore DNA binding proteins, the alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble proteins (SASP), colocalized to these nucleoid rings early in spore germination, as did the B. megaterium homolog of the major B. subtilis(More)
The Bacillus subtilis genome sequencing project [Kunst et al., Nature 390 (1997) 249-256] identified ywhE as a gene that potentially encodes a high-molecular-weight class A penicillin-binding protein. Analysis of the expression of a translational ywhE-lacZ fusion showed that ywhE expression is sporulation-specific, and is controlled predominantly by the(More)
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