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Ki67 immunostaining has been performed on 136 primary breast cancers and related to various clinical and pathological features of the disease. Staining was most frequently seen in poorly differentiated tumours showing high rates of mitotic activity, but was independent of tumour size, lymph-node status and ER expression. A high level of Ki67 immunostaining(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have identified several common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk. It is likely, however, that a substantial proportion of such loci have not yet been discovered. METHODS We compared 296,114 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1694 breast cancer case subjects (92% with two primary cancers(More)
Mammographic density is strongly associated with breast cancer risk, and endogenous hormones, which are risk factors for breast cancer, may be involved in the mechanism. This cross-sectional study of 494 premenopausal women is the first to account for cyclic variations in estrogen levels, by measuring urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) in the periovulatory(More)
The percentage of oestrogen receptor (ER) positive cells in a series of 118 breast cancers has been examined by immunohistochemistry in relation to patients' response to endocrine therapy. Positive and negative predictive values have been used to calculate appropriate cut-off points. The rate of response to treatment was significantly higher in women with(More)
In premenopausal women with breast cancer, the use of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist, goserelin, results in the production of serum levels of oestradiol equivalent to those after surgical oöphorectomy or in postmenopausal women. The standard first line hormonal treatment for systemic breast cancer in postmenopausal women is tamoxifen. The(More)
An immunocytochemical assay for the measurement of estrogen receptor (ER-ICA; Abbott Diagnostics) has been evaluated in 163 human breast carcinomas. Specific binding was observed in the nuclei of 111 of 163 (68%) tumors. An excellent correlation was observed between the ER-ICA and the estrogen receptor enzyme immunoassay. A significant relationship was(More)
The implication of leukotrienes as mediators of inflammation and recent evidence that prostaglandin analogues provide a beneficial effect during experimental colitis led to the speculation that (i) leukotrienes may be injurious and (ii) prostaglandins may be protective to colonic mucosa. Using a 2% acetic acid induced rat colitis model, we administered(More)
The English National Health Service published outcome information for individual surgeons for ten specialties in June, 2013. We looked at whether individual surgeons do sufficient numbers of procedures to be able to reliably identify those with poor performance. For some specialties, the number of procedures that a surgeon does each year is low and, as a(More)
Iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 status was found to be poor in a substantial proportion of outpatients with generally inactive Crohn's disease. Diet counseling was associated with a normalization of TIBC and serum folate over a 6-month period, but no other consistent benefits were noted despite moderate improvements in intake. The outpatients appeared to be(More)
The late effects of variable doses of abdominal irradiation on in vitro jejunal uptake were examined. The uptake of glucose, galactose, cholic acid, medium-chain length fatty acids, and decanol was studied 6 and 33 weeks following 300, 600, or 900 cGy abdominal irradiation. The intestinal morphological characteristics were similar 6 and 33 weeks after(More)