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Inflammasomes are molecular platforms activated upon cellular infection or stress that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta to engage innate immune defenses. Strong associations between dysregulated inflammasome activity and human heritable and acquired inflammatory diseases highlight the importance this pathway in(More)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) coordinates a diverse array of cellular programs through transcriptional regulation of immunologically relevant genes. This article reviews the current understanding of IFN-gamma ligand, receptor, signal transduction, and cellular effects with a focus on macrophage responses and to a lesser extent, responses from other cell(More)
Interferon-␥ (IFN-␥) coordinates a diverse array of cellular programs through transcrip-tional regulation of immunologically relevant genes. This article reviews the current understanding of IFN-␥ ligand, receptor, signal transduction, and cellular effects with a focus on macrophage responses and to a lesser extent, responses from other cell types that(More)
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) are all implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here we review mechanisms directing IL-1beta production and its pathogenic role in islet dysfunction during chronic hyperglycemia. In doing so, we integrate previously disparate(More)
Although repetitive elements pervade mammalian genomes, their overall contribution to transcriptional activity is poorly defined. Here, as part of the FANTOM4 project, we report that 6-30% of cap-selected mouse and human RNA transcripts initiate within repetitive elements. Analysis of approximately 250,000 retrotransposon-derived transcription start sites(More)
Resident macrophages are an integral component of many tissues and are important in homeostasis and repair. This study examines the contribution of resident tissue macrophages to bone physiology. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that a discrete population of resident macrophages, OsteoMacs, was intercalated throughout murine and human osteal tissues.(More)
It has been reported that relatively short RNAs of heterogeneous sizes are derived from sequences near the promoters of eukaryotic genes. In conjunction with the FANTOM4 project, we have identified tiny RNAs with a modal length of 18 nt that map within -60 to +120 nt of transcription start sites (TSSs) in human, chicken and Drosophila. These transcription(More)
BACKGROUND Monocytes and macrophages express an extensive repertoire of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. In this study we performed a systematic micro-array analysis of GPCR expression in primary mouse macrophages to identify family members that are either enriched in macrophages compared to a panel of other cell(More)
Cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA triggers cell death and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in macrophages. Recent reports now describe the mechanism underlying this observation. Upon sensing of DNA, the HIN-200 family member AIM2 triggers the assembly of the inflammasome, culminating in caspase-1 activation, IL-1beta maturation and(More)
The recognition of carbohydrate moieties by cells of the innate immune system is emerging as an essential element in antifungal immunity, but despite the number and diversity of lectins expressed by innate immune cells, few carbohydrate receptors have been characterized. Mincle, a C-type lectin, is expressed predominantly on macrophages, and is here shown(More)