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A study by a ITiCSE 2001 working group ("the McCracken Group") established that many students do not know how to program at the conclusion of their introductory courses. A popular explanation for this incapacity is that the students lack the ability to problem-solve. That is, they lack the ability to take a problem description, decompose it into(More)
Is there consensus on what students should learn in CS2? Should they learn to use data structures, understand their specific implementation details, or both? Finally, has the computing education community's answer to the second question changed over time? In this paper, we begin to explore these questions based on an analysis of a key artifact instructors(More)
BACKGROUND Phyto-oestrogens are a group of naturally occurring chemicals derived from plants; they have a structure similar to oestrogen, and form part of our diet. They also have potentially anticarcinogenic biological activity. We did a case-control study to assess the association between phyto-oestrogen intake (as measured by urinary excretion) and the(More)
The genetic basis for nonmedullary forms of thyroid cancer (NMTC) is less well established than that of medullary thyroid cancer. However, epidemiological and family studies suggest that a proportion of NMTC may be due to inherited predisposition. To estimate the familial risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the(More)
In this paper, we present the results of an experiment in which we sought to elicit students' understanding of object-oriented (OO) concepts using concept maps. Our analysis confirmed earlier research indicating that students do not have a firm grasp on the distinction between "class" and "instance." Unlike earlier research, we found that our students(More)
The culture of the healthcare workplace is influential in delivering care that is person-centred, clinically effective and continually improving in response to a changing context. The consequences of ineffective cultures have resulted in highly publicised failings. Since 2000, there has been increasing attention on culture in healthcare particularly(More)
UNLABELLED BMD and clinical risk factors predict hip and other osteoporotic fractures. The combination of clinical risk factors and BMD provide higher specificity and sensitivity than either alone. INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESES: To develop a risk assessment tool based on clinical risk factors (CRFs) with and without BMD. METHODS Nine population-based(More)
In this paper, we begin by considering object-oriented programming concepts and typical novice misconceptions as identified in the literature. We then present the results of a close examination of student programs, in an objects-first CS1 course, in which we find concrete evidence of students learning these concepts while also displaying some of these(More)
This paper describes Threshold Concepts, a theory of learning that distinguishes core concepts whose characteristics can make them troublesome in learning. With an eye to applying this theory in computer science, we consider this notion in the context of related topics in computer science education.
Yes, and Yes.We are currently undertaking an pirical investigation of "Threshold Concepts" in Computer Science, with input from both instructors and students. We have found good pirical evidence that at least two concepts---Object-oriented programming and pointers--are Threshold Concepts, and that there are potentially many more others.In this paper, we(More)