Kate Northstone

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Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six(More)
Transgenerational effects of maternal nutrition or other environmental 'exposures' are well recognised, but the possibility of exposure in the male influencing development and health in the next generation(s) is rarely considered. However, historical associations of longevity with paternal ancestors' food supply in the slow growth period (SGP) in mid(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) have previously shown that dietary patterns are observable by 3 years. However, it is not clear when dietary patterns emerge. We aimed to describe dietary patterns in early life and their associations with maternal and infant sociodemographic characteristics. (More)
BACKGROUND Twins tend to lag behind singletons in their language development, but the causes were unknown. The possibilities suggested include obstetric complications, twin-specific features, and postnatal differences in family interaction. The present study was designed to pit these alternatives against one another as possible causal influences. METHOD(More)
The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier(More)
This study assesses the stability of dietary patterns obtained using principal components analysis (PCA) through early to mid-childhood. Dietary data were collected from children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). Frequency of consumption of a range of food items was recorded by mothers using self-completion postal(More)
CONTEXT Rapid postnatal weight gain has been associated with subsequent increased childhood adiposity. However, the contribution of rapid weight gain during specific infancy periods is not clear. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine which periods of infancy weight gain are related to childhood adiposity and also to age at menarche in UK girls. DESIGN,(More)
AIM We have previously reported on distinct dietary patterns obtained from principal components analysis (PCA) of food frequency questionnaires from 3-y-old children. In this study, we repeat these analyses at 4 and 7 y of age. DESIGN As part of regular self-completion questionnaires, the primary source of data collection in the Avon Longitudinal Study of(More)
PURPOSE Time spent in "sports/outdoor activity" has shown a negative association with incident myopia during childhood. We investigated the association of incident myopia with time spent outdoors and physical activity separately. METHODS Participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed by noncycloplegic(More)
BACKGROUND Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in(More)