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Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six(More)
Transgenerational effects of maternal nutrition or other environmental 'exposures' are well recognised, but the possibility of exposure in the male influencing development and health in the next generation(s) is rarely considered. However, historical associations of longevity with paternal ancestors' food supply in the slow growth period (SGP) in mid(More)
The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier(More)
BACKGROUND Twins tend to lag behind singletons in their language development, but the causes were unknown. The possibilities suggested include obstetric complications, twin-specific features, and postnatal differences in family interaction. The present study was designed to pit these alternatives against one another as possible causal influences. METHOD(More)
To present data on the self-reported use of all types of medicinal products collected during pregnancy in a large cohort in southwest England. Pregnant women with a delivery date during 1991-1992 and forming part of the prospective, population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were sent up to four self-completion postal(More)
OBJECTIVE To document the prevalence of cannabis use in a large sample of British women studied during pregnancy, to determine the association between cannabis use and social and lifestyle factors and assess any independent effects on pregnancy outcome. DESIGN Self-completed questionnaire on use of cannabis before and during pregnancy. SAMPLE Over(More)
BACKGROUND Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in(More)
BACKGROUND Observational studies suggested that breast-feeding benefits the visual development of preterm children, which has been attributed to the presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast milk but not most formula milks. Randomized studies showed that preterm children require a dietary supply of DHA in the first few weeks of life for optimal(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the distribution and predictors of some common visual problems (strabismus, amblyopia, hypermetropia) within a population-based cohort of children at the age of 7 years. METHODS Children participating in a birth cohort study were examined by orthoptists who carried out cover/uncover, alternate cover, visual acuity and non-cycloplegic(More)
CONTEXT Rapid postnatal weight gain has been associated with subsequent increased childhood adiposity. However, the contribution of rapid weight gain during specific infancy periods is not clear. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine which periods of infancy weight gain are related to childhood adiposity and also to age at menarche in UK girls. DESIGN,(More)